The performance of semiconductor lasers can degrade during their operation. This degradation is usually characterized by an increase in the threshold current that is often accompanied by a decrease in the external differential quantum efficiency. The dominant mechanism responsible for this degradation is determined by one or several of the fabrication processes including epitaxy, device processing, and bonding. In addition, the degradation rate of lasers processed from a given wafer depends on the operating conditions, namely, the operating temperature and injection current. Although many of the degradation mechanisms are not fully understood, an extensive amount of empirical observations exists in the literature. These observations have allowed the fabrication of InGaAsP laser diodes with an extrapolated median lifetime in excess of 25 years1 at an operating temperature of 10°C.
KeywordsSemiconductor Laser Threshold Current Reliability Assurance EBIC Signal Dark Line Defect
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Nash, F. R., W. J. Sundburg, R. L. Hartman, J. R. Pawlik, D. A. Ackerman, N. K. Dutta, and R. W. Dixon. AT&T Tech. J. 64, 809 (1985).Google Scholar
- 2.The reliability requirements of a submarine lightwave transmission system are discussed in a special issue of AT&T Tech. J. 64, 3 (1985).Google Scholar
- 8.Casey, H. C., and M. B. Panish, Chap. 8 in Heterostructure Lasers. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
- 9.Kressel, H., and J. K. Butler. Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs. New York: Academic Press, 1977.Google Scholar
- 15b.Johnston, W. D., Chap. 7 in GaInAsP Alloy Semiconductors, ed. T. P. Pearsall. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1982.Google Scholar
- 17.Ueda, O., S. Yamakoshi, S. Komiya, and T. Kotani, Proc. Defects and Radiation Effects in Semiconductors, Ser. no. 59, Institute of Physics, Bristol, 1981.Google Scholar
- 18.A. K. Chin, in Scanning Electron Microscopy, Vol. III, p. 1069. Chicago: SEM Inc., 1982.Google Scholar
- 22.Yamakoshi, S., M. Abe, S. Komiya, and Y. Toyamer. Proc. Int. Electron. Dev. meeting, p. 122 (1979).Google Scholar
- 27.E. J. Flynn (personal communication).Google Scholar
- 31.Hakki, B. W., P. E. Fraley, and T. F. Eltringham. AT&T Tech. J. 64, 771 (1985).Google Scholar
- 33.Joyce, W. B., K. Y. Liou, F. R. Nash, P. R. Bossard, and R. L. Hartman. AT&T Tech. J. 64, 717 (1985).Google Scholar
- 36.Fukuda, M. Reliability and degradation of semiconductor lasers and LEDs. Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1991.Google Scholar