Small-Diameter Tunnels

  • David E. Westfall
  • Glenn M. Boyce


Conventional tunnels are driven by workers excavating, supporting, and advancing the tunnel at its face. As the tunnel diameter decreases, work becomes more difficult. Thereis less room for personnel. Efficiency and advance rates decrease. It becomes increasingly difficult to erect the tunnel lining system from within the tunnel. At diameters of 60 to 18 in., it becomes more efficient to push the lining into place from a shaft or portal. This lining is a string of pipe sections. This method of tunnel construction, commonly referred to as pipe jacking, was introduced in the United States during the 1890s. Pipe jacking is commonly used at highway and railroad crossings to install conduits or sewers through soft ground instead of trenching. References


Earth Pressure Ductile Cast Iron Tunnel Boring Machine Auger System Soft Ground 
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Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • David E. Westfall
    • 1
  • Glenn M. Boyce
    • 1
  1. 1.Persons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc.USA

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