Multiple Stages of Virus-Receptor Interactions as Shown by Simian Virus 40
None of the many antibiotics that are clinically effective in the fight against bacteria are active against viruses. Furthermore, the search for clinically effective antiviral agents has thus far produced relatively few useful drugs. Nevertheless, adhesion based therapies may be particularly promising in the fight against viruses. First, whereas adhesion may enhance the infectivity of certain bacteria, the interaction of a virus with its receptor is absolutely critical for infection. Furthermore, since virus-receptor interactions are highly specific, a virus can not easily mutate its receptor binding site and remain viable. Thus, the anti-adhesion approach to antivirals is not likely to lead to drug resistant variants. Also, whereas viruses were once thought to interact with a single cell membrane component, an increasing number of viruses are appearing to interact sequentially with multiple distinct cell surface components (Haywood, 1994; Norkin, 1995). Initial binding may be followed by secondary interactions that strengthen adhesion, promote entry, or both. This complexity may be a cause for optimism since it produces additional opportunities for the rational development of drugs that might target initial binding, adhesion strengthening, or entry.
KeywordsMajor Histocompatibility Complex Molecule Simian Virus Early Response Gene Entry Pathway Cytosol Acidification
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