Advertisement

Adhesins Of Staphylococcus Aureus that Bind Lewisa Antigen

Relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
  • C. C. Blackwell
  • A. T. Saadi
  • S. D. Essery
  • M. W. Raza
  • A. A. Zorgani
  • O. R. Elahmer
  • A. H. Alkout
  • V. S. James
  • D. A. C. MacKenzie
  • D. M. Weir
  • A. Busuttil
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 408)

Abstract

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is defined as “the sudden death of any infant or young child which is unexpected by history, and in which a thorough postmortem examination fails to demonstrate an adequate cause of death” [Beckwith, 1969]. Since 1990, there has been a steady reduction in the numbers of SIDS in Britain [Court, 1995; Scottish Cot Death Trust, personal communication]; however, SIDS is still the major cause of post perinatal mortality during the first year of life. Petechiae in the lungs and thymus, liquid heart blood and empty bladder are common findings at autopsy [Berry, 1992]. While there is little evidence that could explain why the infant died, there are common findings that suggest immune or inflammatory reactions have been elicited before death(Table 1).

Keywords

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Case Toxigenic Strain Buccal Epithelial Cell Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin Binding Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alkout AH, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Luman W, Palmer K. Adhesin of Helicobacter pylori that binds to H type 2 and Lewis blood groupa: an explanation of increased susceptibility of blood group O and non-secretors to peptic ulcers. In Toward Anti-Adhesin Therapy of Microbial Diseases Ed. I. Kahane and I. Ofek PlenumGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amberg R, Furanol R, Pelz K, Goebel U, Pollak S. Acute phase reactions in cases of SIDS and infants suffering from infection. 13 Meeting International Assocociation of Forensic Sciences, Dusseldorof, Dermany 1993. A260.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aniansson G, Alm B, Andersson B, Larsson P, Nyleu O, Peterson H, Ringer P, Svanborg M, Svanborg C. Nasopharyngeal colonization during the first year of life. J Infect Dis 165 (suppl): s38-s42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anonymous. 38. Cot deaths. BMJ 1995; 310: 7–10.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baraff LJ, Ablon WJ, Weiss RC. Possible temporal association between diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-pertussis vaccination and sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis 1983; 2: 7–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beckwith JB Discussion of terminology and definition of the sudden infant death syndrome, in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Causes of Sudden Deaths in Infants (Bergman, A.B., Beckwith, J.B. and Ray, CG., eds.), University of Washington Press, 1970 pp. 14–22.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berry PJ. Pathological findings in SIDS. J Clin Pathol 1992; 45 (suppl): 11–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bettiol SS, Radcliff FJ, Hunt AL, Goldsmid JM. Bacterial flora of Tasmanian SIDS infants with special reference to pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. Epidemioll Infect 1994; 112: 275–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blackwell CC, Saadi AT, Raza MW, Stewart J, Weir DM Susceptibility to infection in relation to sudden infant death syndrome. J Clin Pathol 1992; 45 (Supplement): 20–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Busuttil A. Infectious agents, the inflammatory responses of infants and sudden infants death syndrome (SIDS). Mol Med Today 1995; 1: 72–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Busuttil A, Saadi AT, Essery SD, Raza MW, Zorgani AA, James VS, Mackenzie DAC. 1995. Infectious agents and SIDS: a new concept involving interactions between microorganisms the immune system and developmental stage of infants. In Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, New Trends in the Nineties. Ed. T.O. Rognum. Scandinavian University Press PP. 189–198.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blackwell CC, Weir D M, Busuttil A, Saadi AT, Essery SD, Raza MW, James VS Mackenzie DAC. The role of infectious agents in sudden infant death syndrome. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1994; 9: 91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bohach GA, Fast DJ, Nelson RD, Schlievert PM. Staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxins involved in toxic shock syndrome and related illnesses. Crit Rev Microbiol 1990; 17: 251–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Court C. Cot deaths: Britain: Incidence reduced by two thirds in five years. Br Med J 1995; 310: 7–8.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    El-Ahmer OR, Mackenzie DAC, James VS, Blackwell CC, Raza MW, Saadi AT, Elton RA, Ogilvie MM, Weir DM. Exposure to cigarette smoke and colonization by Neisseria species. Neisseria 94 (eds. JS Evans et al.) England: SCC. pp 391–392.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Essery, S.D., Blackwell, C.C., Weir, D.M. and Busuttil A. 1994. Antigenic cross reactivity of bacterial toxins. Third SIDS International Congress.p 121.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Essery S.D., Saadi, A.T., Twite, S.J., Weir, D.M. Blackwell C.C. and Busuttil A 1994. Lewis antigen expression on human monocytes and binding of pyrogenic toxins. Agents and Actions 41: 108–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Essery, S.D., Weir, D.M., James, V.S., Saadi, A.T., Blackwell, C.C., Tzanakai G, Busuttil, A. Detection of microbial surface antigens that bind Lewisa blood group antigen. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1994; 9: 15–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fleming K. Upper respiratory inflammation and detection of viral nucleic acid. J Clin Pathol 1992; 45 (suppl): 17–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ford RP, Taylor BJ, Mitchell EA, Enright SA, Stewart AW, Becroft DM, Scragg R, Hassall IB, Barry DM, Ellen EM et al. Breastfeeding and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Int J Epidemiol 1993; 22: 885–890.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gibson AAM. Current epidemiology of SIDS. J Clin Pathol 1992; 45 (suppl) : 7–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gilbert RE, Rudd PT, Berry PJ, Fleming PJ, Hall E, White DG, Oreffo VO, James R, Evans JA Bottle feeding and the sudden infant death syndrome. Br Med J 1995; 310: 88–90.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goldwater PN Williams V, Bourne AJ, Byard RW. Sudden infant death syndrome: a possible clue to causation. Med J Austral. 1990; 153: 59–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Harrison M, Carson C, Gillan JE. Mast cell degranulation suggests non-immune anaphylaxis as a cause of death in SIDS, an electron microscopic study. Third European Congress, European Society for the Study and Prevention of Infant Deaths 1993: 34.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hoffman HS, Hunter JC, Damus K et al. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization and sudden infant death: results of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Co-operative Epidemiological Study of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Risk Factors.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pediatrics 1987; 79: 598–611.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Holgate ST, Walters, Walls AF, Lawrence S, Shell DJ, Variend S, Fleming PJ, Berry PJ, Gilbert RE, Robinson C. The anaphylaxis hypothesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): mast cell degranulation in cot death revealed by elevated concentrations of tryptase in serum. Clin Exp Allergy 1994; 24: 115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Howat WJ, Moore IE, Judd M, Roche WR. Pulmonary immunopathology of sudden infant death syndrome. Lancet 1994; 343: 1390–1392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Howatson AG. Viral infection and alpha interferon in SIDS. J Clin Pathol 1992; 45 (suppl):25–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Issit PD. Applied blood group serology. 3rd edition. Miami: Montogemery, 1986.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lindsay JA, Mach AS, Wilkinson MA, Martin M, Wallace MF, Keller AM, Wojciechowski LM. Clostridium perfringens type a cytotoxic-enterotoxin(s) as triggers for death in the sudden infant death syndrome: development of a toxico-infection hypothesis. Curr Microbiol 1993; 27: 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lodemore MR, Peterson SA, Wailoo MP. Factors affecting the development of night-time temperature rhythms. Arch Dis Child 1992; 67: 1259–1261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    MacKenzie DAC, James V.S, Elton RA, Zorgani AA, Blackwell CC, Weir DM, Busuttil A., Gibson AAM. Toxigenic bacteria and SIDS: nasopharyngeal flora in the first year of life. Fourth SIDS International, 1996.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Malam JE, Carrick GF, Telford DR, Morris JA. Staphylococcal toxins and sudden infant death syndrome. J Clin Pathol 1992; 45: 716–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mitchell EA. Smoking: the next major and modifiable risk factor. In Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. New Trends in the Nineties. (Ed. T.O. Rognum) Scandinavian University Press, Oslo, 1995 pp. 114–118.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Morris JA, Haran D, Smith A. Common bacterial toxins are a possible cause of the sudden infant death syndrome. Med Hypotheses 1987;22: 211–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Murrell WG, Stewart BJ, O’Neill C, Siarakas S, Kariks S. Enterotoxigenic bacteria in the sudden infant death syndrome. J Med Microbiol 1993; 39: 114–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Newbould MJ, Malam J, Mclllmurray JM, Morris JA, Telford DR, Barson AJ. Immunohistological localisation of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) in sudden infant death syndrome. J. Clin. Pathol 1989; 42: 935–939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nichol A and Gardner A. Whooping cough and unrecognized post-perinatal mortality. Arch Dis Child 1988; 63: 41–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Oppenheim BA, Barclay GR, Morris J, Know F, Barson A, Drucker DB, Crawley BA, Morris JA. Antibodies to endotoxin core in sudden infant death syndrome. Arch Dis Child 1994; 70: 95–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pershagen G. Review of epidemiology in relation to passive smoking. Arch Toxicol 1986; 9 (suppl 9): 63–73.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Peterson S Wailoo M. Relationships between the development of physiological systems in infancy. In. Wailoo, M (ed.) Proceedings of the Babes in Arms Symposium of Developmental Physiology in Relation to SIDS. Beaconsfield: Chiltern Publishing Ltd., (in press).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Piatt MS, Yunginger JW, Sekula-Perlman A, Irani AM, Smialek J, Mirchandani HG, Schwartz LB. Involvement of mast cells in sudden infant death syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 94: 250–256.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Raza MW. Viral infections as predisposing factors for bacterial meningitis. PhD Thesis University of Edinburgh 1992.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Saadi AT, Blackwell CC, Raza MW, James VS, Stewart J, Elton RA, Weir DM. Factors enhancing adherence of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to epithelial cells and their possible role in sudden infant death syndrome. Epidemiol Infect 1993; 110: 507–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Saadi AT, Weir DM, Poxton IR, Stewart J, Essery SD, Raza MW, Blackwell CC, Busuttil A. Isolation of an adhesin from Staphylococcus aureus that binds Lewisa blood group antigen and its relevance to sudden infant death syndrome. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1994; 8: 315–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Saadi AT, Blackwell, C.C., Essery, S.D., Raza, M.W., Weir, D.M., Elton, R.A., Busuttil, A., Keeling J.W.De- velopmental and environmental factors that enhance binding of Bordetella pertussis to human epithelial cells in relation to sudden infant death syndrome, (submitted for publication)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Saadi, A.T., Raza, M.W., Blackwell, C.C., Weir, D.M. and Busuttil A. 1994. Binding of toxigenic bacteria to epithelial cells of smokers and non-smokers. Third SIDS International Congress, p. 52.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schlievert, PM. The role of superantigens in human disease. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 1995; 8: 170–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sharp J, Poxton IR. The cell wall proteins of Clostridium difficile.FEMS Microbiol Lett 1988; 55: 99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stoltenberg L, Saugstad OD, Rognum TO. Sudden infant death syndrome victime show local immunoglobulin M response in tracheal wall and immunoglobulin A response in duodenal mucosa. Pediatr Res 1992; 31: 372–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Telford DR, Morris JA, Hughes P, Conway AR, Lee S, Barson A J, Drucker DB. The nasopharyngeal bacterial flora in sudden infant death syndrome. J Infect 1989; 18: 125–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    van t’Wout J, Burnette WN, Mar VL, Rozdzinski E, Wright SD, Tuomanen E. Role of carbohydrate recognition domains of pertussis toxin in adherence of Bordetella pertussis to human macrophages. Infect Immun 1992; 60: 3303–3308.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vege A, Rognum TO, Scott H, Aasen AO, Saugstad OD. SIDS cases jave increased levels of interleukin-6 in cerebral spinal fluid. Acta Paediatr 1995; 84: 193–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Walker AM, Jick H, Perera DR et al. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization and sudden infant death syndrome. Am J Public Health 1987; 77: 945–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. C. Blackwell
    • 1
  • A. T. Saadi
    • 1
  • S. D. Essery
    • 1
  • M. W. Raza
    • 1
  • A. A. Zorgani
    • 1
  • O. R. Elahmer
    • 1
  • A. H. Alkout
    • 1
  • V. S. James
    • 1
  • D. A. C. MacKenzie
    • 1
  • D. M. Weir
    • 1
  • A. Busuttil
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical Microbiology and Forensic Medicine UnitUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghScotland

Personalised recommendations