Effect of Saponins on the Growth and Activity of Rhizosphere Bacteria
Saponins are a group of steroid or triterpenoid glycosides and related chemicals (sapogenins: non-glycosylated) found in roots, shoots, seeds, and flowers of many plant species. Saponins are of agronomic interest because of allelopathic interference with plant growth (Oleszek and Jurzysta, 1987; Waller et al., 1993). Saponins can be released into the soil by secretion from roots and/or leaching from living or decaying plant material (Mishustin and Naumova, 1955; Oleszek and Jurzysta, 1987). Conservation management practices designed to maintain plant residues on the soil surface such as the use of cover crops and reduced tillage are rapidly being adopted by growers; thus the impact of these compounds and other natural products on crop productivity and soil and rhizosphere microbial ecology warrants study.
KeywordsEsterase Activity Extracellular Protein Rhizosphere Bacterium Trichoderma Viride Glycyrrhetic Acid
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Budavari, S. (Ed.) “Escin” #3644, p. 58, in The Merck Index, 11th Edition. Merck and Co., Inc. Rahway, NJ (1989).Google Scholar
- Hoagland, R.E., R.M. Zablotowicz, and K.N. Reddy. “Studies of the Phytotoxicity of Saponins on Weed and Crop Plants”, this volume (1996).Google Scholar
- Mishustin, B.N. and A.N. Naumova. Secretion of toxic substances by alfalfa and their effect on cotton and soil microflora. Akad. Nauk USSR Ivestiya, Ser. Biol. 6:3 (Russian) (1955).Google Scholar
- Polachek, I., U. Zehari, and N. Nairn. Activity of compound G-2 isolated from alfalfa roots against medically important yeasts. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 30:290 (1986).Google Scholar
- Pollock, C.R. “Exoenzymes”, in The Bacteria, Vol. 1. R. Y. Stainer and I. C. Gunsalus (Eds.) Academic Press, New York (1964).Google Scholar
- Rovira, A.D. and C.B. Davey. “Biology of the Rhizosphere”, pp. 153–204 in The Plant Root. Environment. E.W. Carlson, (Ed.) University Press, Charlottesville, Va. (1974).Google Scholar
- Schnurer, J, and T. Rosswall. Fluorescein diacetale hydrolysis as a measure of total microbial activity in soil and litter. Appl Environ, Microbiol. 43:1256 (1982).Google Scholar
- Timbekova, A.E., M.I. Isaev, and N.K. Abubakirov. “Chemistry and Biological Activity of Triterpenoid Glycosides from Medicago sativa”. this volume (1996).Google Scholar
- Waller, G.R., M. Jurzysta, and R.L. Z. Thorne. Root saponins from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and their allelopathic activity on weeds and wheat. Bot. Bull Acad. Sin. 34:1 (1993).Google Scholar
- Wagner, S.C., R.M. Zablotowicz, M.A. Locke, R.J. Smeda, and C.T. Bryson. Influence of herbicide—desiccated cover crops on biological soil quality in the Mississippi Delta. Proc. Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture, MAFES Special Bulletin 88:86 (1995).Google Scholar
- Zentmyer, G.A. Biological control of Phytophthora root rot of avocado with alfalfa meal. Phytopathology 53:1383 (1963).Google Scholar
- Zentmyer, G. A. and G.R. Thompson. The effect of saponins from alfalfa on Phytophthora cinnamomi in relation to control of root rot of avocado. Phytopathology 57:1278 (1967).Google Scholar