Effect of Quillaja Saponins on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation

  • Harinder P. S. Makkar
  • Klaus Becker
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 405)


Saponins are glycosides of an aglycone (genin or sapogenin) linked to one or more sugar chains. These are generally divided into three classes: i) steroid glycosides, ii) steroid alkaloid glycosides, and iii) triterpene glycosides. Saponins have a wide distribution in the plant kingdom1,2 and are generally grouped among antinutritional factors. We investigated effects of quillaja bark saponin on rumen fermentation characteristics using the Hohenheim in vitro gas method.


Neutral Detergent Fiber Apparent Digestibility Antinutritional Factor Rumen Fermentation Microbial Protein Synthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Price, K. R., Johnson, I. T., and Fenwick, G. R., 1987, The chemistry and biological significance of saponins in foods and feedstuffs. CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 26: 27–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mahato, S. B., Sarkar, S. K., and Poddar, G., 1988, Triterpenoid saponins. Phytochemistry 27: 3037–3067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Menke, K. H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D., and Schneider, W., 1979, The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor. J Agric Food Sci 93:217–222.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ørskov, E. R., and McDonald, I., 1979, The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J Agric Sci, Camb 92: 499–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Makkar, H. P. S., Blümmel, M., and Becker, K., 1995, Formation of complexes between polyvinyl pyrrolidones and polyethylene glycols with tannins and their implications in gas production and true digestibility in in vitro techniques. Brit J Nutr 73: 897–913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abel, H-J. V., Coenen, G., and Immig, I., 1990, Untersuchungen zum Einfluß von Fett— und Stärkezulagen auf den mikrobiellen Stoffwechsel im Pansensimulationssystem RUSITEC. J Anim Physiol & Anim Nutr 64: 62–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goering, H.G., and Van Soest, P. J. 1970, Forage fiber analysis. ARS. USDA Washington, DC. Agriculture Handbook, no. 379, 20pp.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cafantaris, B., 1981, Über die Wirkung von Antibiotikazusätzen auf die mikrobielle Gärung im Pansensaft in vitro. PhD Thesis, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    SAS, 1988, SAS/STAT Programme, SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, USA.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van Soest, P. J., 1982, Intake. In: Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant, O & B Books, Corvallis, Oregon, USA, pp 276–293.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Freeland, W. J., Calcott, P. H., and Anderson, L. R., 1985, Tannins and saponins: interaction in herbivore diets. Biochemi Systematics Ecolo 13: 89–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goldstein, W. S., and Spencer, K. C., 1985, Inhibition of cyanogenesis by tannins. J Chem Ecol 11: 847–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fish, B. C., and Thompson, L. U., 1991, Lectin—tannin interactions and their influence on pancreatic amylase activity and starch digestibility. J Agric Food Chem 39: 727–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Makkar, H. P. S., 1993, Antinutritional factors in foods for livestock. In: Animal production in developing countries, Occasional publication no. 16, Gill, M., Owen, E., Pollott, G. E., and Lawrence, T. L., eds., British Society of Animal Production, pp 69–85.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ø1eszek, W. 1993, Allelopathic potentials of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) saponins: their relation to antifungal and hemolytic activities. J Chem Ecol 19: 1063–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Potter, S. M., Jimenez-Fores, R., Pollack, J., Lone, T. A., and Berber-Jimenez, D. M., 1993, Protein—saponin interactions and its influence on blood lipids. J Agric Food Chem 41: 1287–1291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leng, R. A., 1993, Quantitative ruminant nutrition — A green science. Aust J Agric Res 44: 363–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jouany, J. P., and Thivend, P., 1986, In vitro effects of avoparcin on protein degradability and rumen fermentation. Anim Feed Sci Technol 15: 215–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wallace, R.J., Arthaud, L., and Newbold, C.J., 1994, Influence of Yucca schidigera extract on ruminal ammonia concentrations and ruminal microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 1762–1767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hussain, I., and Cheeke; P.R., 1995; Effect of dietary Yucca schidigera extract on rumen and blood profiles of steers fed concentrate— or roughage—based diets. Anim Feed Sci Technol 51: 231–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bondi, A., and Alumot, E., 1987, Anti-nutritional factors in animal feedstuffs and their effects on livestock. Prog Food Nutr Sci 11: 115–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mahato, S. B., and Nandy, A. K., 1991, Triterpenoid saponins discovered between 1987 and 1989. Phytochemistry 30: 1357–1390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fenwick, G. R., Price, K R., Tsukamoto, C., and Okubo, K., 1992, Saponins. In: Toxic Substances in Crop Plants, D’Mello J P F, Duffus C M, Duffus JH, eds., The Royal Society of Chemistry, London, U.K, pp 285–327.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hale, W. H., Sherman, W. C., Reynold, W. M., and Luther, H. G., 1961, The value of certain steroidal sapogenins in rations of fattening lambs and cattle. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 106: 486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Goodall, S. R., Braddy, P., Horton, D., and Beckner, B., 1982, Steam flaked vs. high moisture content rations with and without sarsasaponin for finishing steers. Proc West Sec Am Soc Anim Sci 33: 45–48.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harinder P. S. Makkar
    • 1
  • Klaus Becker
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Animal Production in the Tropics and SubtropicsUniversity of Hohenheim (480)StuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations