Advertisement

Analysis, Heat Stability and Physiological Effects of Saponins from Oats

  • Gunilla Önning
  • Nils-Georg Asp
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 405)

Abstract

In 1953 a bitter-tasting compound was isolated from oats (Mohr, 1953). The compound had saponin features such as hemolytic activity and foaming ability. Rohrlich and Train (1954) determined the sugar components to be rhamnose and glucose and found that the aglycon had a steroid structure. Tschesche and Schmidt (1966) proposed a name for the saponins in oats — avenacosides. Later the structure was elucidated for two oat saponins, avenacoside A and B (Tschesche et al., 1969; Tschesche and Lauven, 1971), both of which are bisdesmosidic (Fig. 1). The sugar residues containing glucose and rhamnose are linked to a steroid aglycon, nuatigenin. Avenacoside B contains one more glucose unit than avenacoside A.

Keywords

Faba Bean Liver Lipid Mongolian Gerbil Avena Sativa Saponin Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alvarez, J.R. and Torres-Pinedo, R., 1982, Interactions of soybean lectin, soya saponins and glycinin with rabbit jejunal mucosa in vitro, Pediatr. Res. 16:728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson, H.A.C., Grigoriadou, F. and Miller, K., 1994, Enhancement of oral sensitisation to food allergens by the bioactive plant constituent Gypsophila saponin in the brown Norway rat, in: Biochemical Biomarkers in Environmental Toxicology, abstract booklet, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  3. Beynen, A.C., 1990, The mongolian gerbil in cholesterol metabolism research, in: Symposium ilber Hamster und Gerbil, Detmold.Google Scholar
  4. Curl, C.L., Price, K.R. and Fenwick, G.R., 1985, The quantitative estimation of saponin in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and soya (Glycine max), Food Chem. 18:241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davidson, M.H., Dugan, L.D., Burns, J.H., Bova, J., Story, K. and Drennan, K.B., 1991, The hypocholesterolemic effects of β-glucan in oatmeal and oat bran, J. Am. Med. Assn. 265:1833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fässler, L., Lichtenthaler, H.K., Gruiz, K. and Biacs, P., 1984, Accumulation of saponins and sterols in Avena seedlings under high—light and low—light growth conditions, Developm. Plant Biol 9:225.Google Scholar
  7. Fenwick, D.E. and Oakenfull, D., 1983, Saponin content of food plants and some prepared foods, J. Sci. Food Agric. 34:186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Frølich, W. and Nyman, M., 1988, Minerals, phytate and dietaiy fibre in different fraction of oat—grain, J. Cereal Sci. 7:73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gee, J.M. and Johnson, I.T., 1988, Interactions between hemolytic saponins, bile salts and small intestinal mucosa in the rat, J. Nutr. 118:1391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gee, J.M., Price, K.R., Ridout, C.L., Wortley, G.M., Hurrell, R.F. and Johnson, I.T., 1993, Saponins of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa): effects of processing on their abundance in quinoa products and their biological effects on intestinal mucosal tissue, J. Food Sci. Agric. 63:201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grünweller, S. and Kesselmeier, J., 1985, Characterization of a membrane—bound β-glucosidase responsible for the activation of oat leaf saponins, Phytochemistry 24:1941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Harwood, H.J., Chandler, C.E., Pellarin, L.D., Bangerter, F.W., Wilkins, R.W., Long, C.A., Cosgrove, P.G., Malinow, M.R., Marzetta, C.A., Pettini, J.L., Savoy, Y.E. and Mayne, J.T., 1993, Pharmacologic consequences of cholesterol absorption inhibition: alteration in cholesterol metabolism and reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration induced by the synthetic saponin β-tigogenin cellobioside (CD-88818; tiqueside), J. Lipid Res. 34:377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ireland, P.A., Dziedzic, S.Z. and Kearsley, M.W., 1986, Saponin content of soya and some commercial soya products by means of high—performance liquid chromatography of the sapogenins, J. Sci. Food Agric. 37:694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jenkins, K.J. and Atwal, A.S., 1994, Effects of dietary saponins on fecal bile acids and neutral sterols, and availability of vitamins A and E in the chick, J. Nutr. Biochem. 5:134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson, I.T., Gee, J.M., Price, K., Curl, C. and Fenwick, G.R., 1986, Influence of saponins on gut permeability and active nutrient transport in vitro, J. Nutr. 116:2270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Jood, S., Chauhan, B.M. and Kapoor, A.C., 1986, Saponin content of chickpea and black gram: varietal differences and effects of processing and cooking methods, J. Sci. Food Agric. 37:1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kataria, A., Chauhan, B.M. and Gandhi, S., 1988, Effect of domestic processing and cooking on the antinutrients of black gram, Food Chem. 30:149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kesselmeier, J. and Strack, D., 1981, High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of steroidal saponins from Avena sativa L, Z. Naturforsch. 36c: 1072.Google Scholar
  19. Livingston, A.L., Knuckles, B.E., Teuber, L.R., Hesterman, O.B. and Tsai, L.S., 1984, Minimizing the saponin content of alfalfa sprouts and leaf protein concentrates, in: Nutritional and Toxicological Aspects of Food Safety, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Mohr, W., 1953, Über die Qualitätsbeeinflussung von Haferzeugnissen (III), Dtsch. Lebensmittel— Rundsch. 49:127.Google Scholar
  21. Ng, K. R., Price, K.R. and Fenwick, G.R., 1994, A TLC method for the analysis of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) saponins, Food Chem. 49:311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nicolosi, R.J., Marlett, J.A., Morello, A.M., Flanagan, S.A. and Hegsted, D.M., 1981, Influence of dietary unsaturated and saturated fat on the plasma lipoproteins of mongolian gerbils, Atherosclerosis 38:359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Oakenfull, D.G., Fenwick, D.E., Hood, R.L., Topping, D.L., Illman, R.L. and Storer, G.B., 1979, Effects of saponins on bile acids and plasma lipids in the rat, Br. J. Nutr. 42:209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Oakenfull, D., Topping, D.L., Illman, R.J. and Fenwick, D.E., 1984, Prevention of dietary hypercholesterolaemia in the rat by soya bean and quillaja saponins, Nutr. Rep. Int. 29:1039.Google Scholar
  25. Oakenfull, D. and Sidhu, G.S., 1990, Could saponins be a useful treatment for hypercholesterolaemia?, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 44:79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Önning, G., Asp, N-G. and Sivik, B., 1993, Saponin content in different oat varieties and in different fractions of oat grain, Food Chem. 48:251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Önning, G., Juillerat, M.A., Fay, L. and Asp, N-G., 1994, Degradation of oat saponins during processing — effect of pH, stainless steel and iron at different temperatures, J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:2578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Önning, G. and Asp, N-G., 1995, Effect of oat saponins on plasma and liver lipids in gerbils and rats, Br. J. Nutr. 73:275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pantzar, N., Westrom, B.R., Luts, A. and Lundin, S., 1993, Regional small—intestinal permeability in vitro to different—sized dextrans and proteins in the rat, Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 28:205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Potter, J.D., Illman, R.J., Calvert, G.D., Oakenfull, D.G. and Topping, D.L., 1980, Soya saponins, plasma lipids, lipoproteins and fecal bile acids: a double blind cross—over study, Nutr. Rep. Int. 22:521.Google Scholar
  31. Potter, S.M., Jimenez-Flores, R., Pollack, J., Lone, T.A. and Berber-Jimenez, M.D., 1993, Protein—saponin interaction and its influence on blood lipids, J. Agric. Food Chem. 41:1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Price, K.R., Curl, C.L. and Fenwick, G.R., 1986, The saponin content and sapogenol composition of the seed of 13 varieties of legume, J. Sci. Food Agric. 37:1185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Price, K.R., Johnson, I.T. and Fenwick, G.R., 1987, The chemistry and biological significance of saponins in foods and feedingstuffs, CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 26:27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ripsin, C.M., Keenan, J.M., Jacobs, D.R., Elmer, P.J., Welch, R.R., Van Horn, L., Liu, K., Turnbull, W.H., Thye, F.W., Kestin, M., Hegsted, M., Davidson, D.M., Davidson, M.H., Dugan, L.D., Demark-Wahnefried, W. and Beling, S., 1992, Oat products and lipid lowering, a meta-analysis, J. Am. Med. Assn. 267:3317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rohrlich, M. and Train, G., 1954, Isolierung eines bitterschmeckenden Glycosids aus Hafer, Z. Lebensmittel — Unters. u. Forschung 345.Google Scholar
  36. Rotenberg, S. and Eggum, B.O., 1986, The effect of purified pectins with and without saponins in the diet on selected lipid parameters in liver and blood plasma of rats, Acta Agric. Scand. 36:211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ruales, J. and Nair, B.M., 1993, Saponins, phytic acid, tannins and protease inhibitors in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds, Food Chem. 48:137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sharma, A. and Sehgal, S., 1992, Effect of processing and cooking on the antinutritional factors of faba bean (Viciafaba), Food Chem. 43:383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shinnick, F.L., Ink, S.L. and Marlett, J.A., 1990, Dose response to a dietary oat bran fraction in cholesterol—fed rats, J. Nutr. 120:561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sidhu, G.S., Upson, B. and Malinow, M.R., 1987, Effects of soy saponins and tigogenin cellobioside on intestinal uptake of cholesterol, cholate and glucose, Nutr. Rep. Int. 35:615.Google Scholar
  41. Southon, S., Johnson, I.T., Gee, J.M. and Price, K.R., 1988, The effect of Gypsophila saponins in the diet on mineral status and plasma cholesterol concentration in the rat, Br. J. Nutr. 59:49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stark, A. and Madar, Z., 1993, The effect of an ethanol extract derived from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum—graecum) on bile acid absorption and cholesterol levels in rats, Br. J. Nutr. 69:277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Temmerman, A.M., Vonk, R.J., Niezen-Koning, K., Berger, R. and Fernandes, J., 1988, Long—term and short—term effects of dietary cholesterol and fats in the mongolian gerbil, Ann. Nutr. Metab. 32:177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Topping, D.L., Trimble, R.P., Illman, R.J., Potter, J.D. and Oakenfull, D.G., 1980, Prevention of dietary hypercholesterolemia in the rat by soy flour high and low in saponins, Nutr. Rep. Int. 22:513.Google Scholar
  45. Tschesche, R. and Schmidt, W., 1966, Zwei neue Saponine der oberirdischen Teile des Hafers (Avena sativa) mit Nuatigenin als Aglykon, Z. Naturforsch. 21b: 896.Google Scholar
  46. Tschesche, R., Tauscher, M., Fehlhaber, H-W. and Wulff, G., 1969, Avenacosid A, ein bisdesmosidisches Steroid—saponin aus Avena sativa, Chem. Ber. 102:2072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tschesche, R. and Lauven, P., 1971, Avenacosid B, ein zweites bisdesmosidisches Steroid—saponin aus Avena sativa, Chem. Ber. 104:3549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tschesche, R. and Wiemann, W., 1977, Desgluco—avenacosid-A und -B, biologisch aktive Nuatigeninglycoside, Chem. Ber. 110:2416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang, Q., Pantzar, N., Jeppsson, B., Weström, B.R. and Karlsson, B.W., 1994, Increased intestinal marker absorption due to regional permeability changes and decreased intestinal transit during sepsis in the rat. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 28:1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunilla Önning
    • 1
  • Nils-Georg Asp
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied Nutrition and Food ChemistryLund UniversityLundSweden

Personalised recommendations