Advertisement

Soluble Organic Polymers in Water and Wastewater Treatment

  • B. A. Bolto
  • D. R. Dixon
  • S. R. Gray
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 51)

Abstract

Organic polymeric flocculants have been used in water purification processes for several decades as coagulant aids or floc builders, after the addition of inorganic coagulants like alum, iron salts or lime. The application of polymers as primary coagulants in cleaning up low quality natural waters for drinking water production by direct filtration and in weighted flocculation is discussed. For industrial wastewaters new information is presented on primary coagulation where separation is based on flotation, the burden of solids to be separated now being much reduced relative to systems utilising inorganic coagulants. As well, the dosage of chemicals overall is reduced, and there is less final sludge. The major advantages in polyelectrolyte use generally are faster processing and much greater operational stabilty and reliability.

Keywords

Biochemical Oxygen Demand Phosphorus Removal Cationic Polymer Direct Filtration Sodium Polystyrenesulfonate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Boito, B.A., Soluble polymers in water purification. Progress in Polymer Science,1995, accepted for publication.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Edzwald, J. K., Conventional water treatment and direct filtration: treatment and removal of total organic carbon and trihalomethane precursors. Organic Carcinogens In Drinking Water (N. M. Ram, E. J. Calabrese and R. F. Christman Ed.), p. 208, Wiley, New York, 1986.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schlauch, R. M., Coagulation for gravity type clarification and thickening. Polyelectrolytes for Water and Wastewater Treatment (W. L. K. Schwoyer Ed.), p. 91, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1981.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vik, E. A. and Eikebrokk, B., Coagulation process for removal of humic substances from drinking water. Aquatic Humic Substances (L H. Suffet and P. MacCarthy Ed.), p. 385, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, 1989.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jackson, G. E., Granular media filtration in water and wastewater treatment: Part 2. CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control 11, 1–36, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bilanovich, B., Shelef, G. and Sukenik, A., Flocculation of microalgae with cationic polymers–effects of medium salinity. Biomass 17, 65–76, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Haarhoff, J. and Cleasby, J. L., Direct filtration of chlorella with cationic polymer. J. Environ. Eng. 115, 348–366, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Himberg, K., Keijola, A. M., Hiisvirta, L., Pyysalo, H. and Sivonen, K., The effect of water treatment processes on the removal of hepatotoxins from Microcystis and Oscillatoria cyanobacteria: a laboratory study. Water Research 23, 979–984, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Philipp, B., Jaeger, W., Gohlke, U., Wandrey, C., Hahn, M., Dietrich, K., Linow, K-J., Dautzenberg, H. and Kötz, J., Ergebnisse Der Polymer-Forschung im Zusammenhang mit der Wasserreinigung. Paperi ja Puu 68, 419–430, 1986.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Demeter, L., Galgoczi, B., Bozzay, E. and Zagyvai, I., Weighted flocculation. US Pat. 3,350,302 (1967) assigned to Nikex Nehézipari Külkereskedelmi Vallalat, Budapest.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cailleaux, C., Pujol, E., De Dianous, F. and Druoton, J. C., Study of weighted flocculation in view of a new type of clarifier. Aqua 41, 18–27, 1992.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pujol, E., Vullierme, M., Druoton, J. C. and Sibony, J., Performance of the Actiflow settling process in the Neuilly-sur-Marne plant. Tech., Sci., Methodes: Genie Urbane-Genie Rural 11, 557–562, 1993.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guibelin, E., Delsalle, F. and Binot, P., High speed settling of stormwater with microsand. Chem. Water Wastewater Treat. III, Proc. Gothenburg Symp., 6th (R. Klute and H. H. Hahn Ed.), p. 307, Springer, Berlin, 1994.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dixon, D. R. and Kolarik, L. O., The role of colloid and surface chemistry in the SIROFLOC process. Surface and Colloid Chemistry in Natural Waters and Water Treatment (R. Beckett Ed), pp. 103–118, Plenum, New York, 1990.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bolto, B. A., Magnetic particle technologies for wastewater treatment. Waste Management, 10,11–21, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Akyel, G., Booker, N., Cooney, E. and Priestley, A., Rapid sewage clarification using magnetite particles. Proc. AWWA Fed. Cony., Australian Water and Wastewater Association, Gold Coast, Vol. 1, pp. 137–144, 1993.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moore, K. G., Johnson, M. G. and Sistrunk, W. A., Effect of polyelectrolyte treatments on waste strength of snap and dry bean wastewaters. J. Food Sci. 52, 491–492, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pariser, E. R. and Lombardi, D. R, A guide to the research literature. Chitin Sourcebook, p. II: L - 1, Wiley, New York, 1989.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kisla, T. C. and McKelvey, R. D., Color removal from softwood kraft pulp bleach plant effluent by polyamines. Environ. Sci. Technol. 12, 207–211, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Michelsen, D. L., Fulk, L. L., Woodby, R. M. and Boardman, G. D., Adsorptive and chemical pretreatment of reactive dye discharges. Emerging Technologies In Hazardous Waste Management III (D. W. Tedder and F. G. Pohland Ed.), p. 119, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Türkman, A., Polymer application examples in industrial wastewater treatment. New Developments in Industrial Wastewater Treatment (A. Türkman and O. Uslu Ed.), p. 93, Kluwer Academic, Dortrecht, 1991.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beeby, J. P., Dixon, D. R., Gray, S. R. and Smitham, J. B., Foam flotation in rolling mill effluent treatment. 15th Fed. Cony. Aust. Water & Wastewater Assoc. Vol. 2, pp. 548–552, Gold Coast, Australia, 1993.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bolto, B. A., Dixon, D. R., Gray, S. R., Ha, C., Harbour, P. J., Ngoc, L. and Ware, A. J., The use of soluble organic polymers in wastes treatment. Proc. 18th Biennial International Conference, International Assocn. on Water Quality, Singapore, 1996.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Burkert, H., Hartmann, J., Jung, D., Heide, W., Hartmann, H. and Spoor, H., Flocculants based on polymers containing water-soluble dialkylaminoneopentyl (meth)acrylate. US Pat. 4,465,599 (1984), assigned to BASF A.-G.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sato, S., Cationic polymer coagulant for sludge dewatering. Jpn. Kokai Tokkvo Koho 92 07,100 (1992), assigned to Kurita Water Industries Ltd.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dixon, D. R., The development of improved methods for the purification of wool scouring effluents to minimise the total cost of treatment and discharge to the sewer. Final Report for Project CPO2, Australian Wool Research and Promotion Organisation, Melbourne, 1994.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sörensen, J. and Larsson, S. G., Particle separation in wastewater treatment. Chem. Water Wastewater Treat. II, Proc. Gothenburg Symp., 5th (R. Klute and H. H. Hahn Ed.), pp. 181–190, Springer, Berlin, 1992.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Palmer, V., Zhou, R., Geckeler, K. E. and Bayer, E., Removal of phosphate in aqueous solution by permethylated poly(ethyleneimine). Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 22, 231–236, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Tiravanti, G. Macchi, D. Marani, M. Pagano, M. Santon and R. Passino, Heavy Met. Environ., Int. Conf, 5th (T. D. Lekkas Ed), R. 631, Cep Consult., Edinburgh (1985).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    L. Campanella, V. Crescenzi, M. Dentini, C. Fabiani, F. Mazzei and A. I. N. Scheffino, Metals Speciation, Separation, And Recovery (J. W. Patterson and R. Passino Ed), Vol. 2, R 359, Lewis, Chelsea (1990).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    B. L. Duran, D. S. Ehler and N. N. Sauer, Waste Treat. Technol. News 9 (11), 286 (1994).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. H. G. Jellinek and M. D. Luh, J. Polym. Sci. A-1 7, 2445–2449 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. J. Sasaki, S. L. Burnett, S. D. Christian, E. E. Tucker and J. F. Scamehorn, Langmuir 5, 363–369 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. D. Mundkur and J. C. Watters, Sep. Sci. Technol. 28, 1157–1168 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. G. Fane, A. R. Awang, M. Bolko, R. Macoun, R. Schofield, Y. R. Shen and F. Zha, Water Sci. Technol. 25, 5–18 (1992).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    R-S. Juang and J-F. Liang, J. Mem. Sci. 82, 175–183 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Volchek, E. Krentsel, Y. Zhilin, G. Shtereva and Y. Dytnersky, J. Mem. Sci. 79, 253–272 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Bolto
    • 1
  • D. R. Dixon
    • 1
  • S. R. Gray
    • 1
  1. 1.CSIRO Chemicals and PolymersRosebank MDCClaytonAustralia

Personalised recommendations