Synthesis and Analysis of Contaminants in EMS-Related Tryptophan
Eosinophilia-Myalgia-Syndrome (EMS) has been linked to the ingestion of Tryptophan (Trp) manufactured by a single company containing more than 60 UV-detectable minor contaminants (Belongia et al., 1990). Hill et al. (1993) showed by statistical comparison of case and non-case associated lots that six of these contaminants can be associated with EMS: 1,1’-Ethylidenebis-L-tryptophan (1,1’-EBT) (Smith et al., 1991) and 3-(Phenylamino)alanine (PAA)(Toyo’oka et al., 1991, Goda et al., 1992) have already been structurally characterized and linked with the occurrence of EMS. 2-(3-indolylmethyl)-L-tryptophan (Peak 200) has been structurally determined by Möller et al. (1991). The structures of the remaining 3 EMS related contaminant peaks are still unknown (Hill et al., 1993). However there is still no animal model that establishes all features of EMS and there is still a lack of statistical significance for the association of EMS with 1,1’-EBT, Peak 200 (Philen et al., 1993) and PAA (Hill et al., 1993). That raises the possibility that the etiologic agent is still unknown because it could not be found by RP-HPLC and UV-detection. That is applicable, for example, for substances exhibiting little UV-response or coeluting with the large L-Trp peak (Hertzman et al., 1991).
KeywordsAmmonium Salt Anthranilic Acid Ammonium Carbonate Selective Cleavage Myalgia Syndrome
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