Environmental Effects of Discharge and Reinjection of Produced Water
Since new, strict regulations for oil content on drill cuttings were introduced in 1993, produced water has become the major contributor of oil discharge to the sea from the Norwegian oil industry. As a concequence, much focus has been placed on possible acute toxicity of produced water and the identification of natural components and chemicals which contribute most to that toxicity.
KeywordsProduce Water Corrosion Inhibitor Exposure Dose Discharge Point Drill Cutting
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- E&P Forum: “North Sea Produced Water. Fate and Effects in the Marine Environment”. Draft Report, 1992.Google Scholar
- E&P Forum: North Sea Produced Water: Fate and Effects in the Marine Environment. Report No. 2.62/204,1994.Google Scholar
- Johnsen, S., Smith, A. Th., Brendehaug, J., Riksheim, H., Gjøse, A. L.: “Identification of Sources of Acute Toxicity in Produced Water”. paper SPE 27138 presented at the 1993 SPE Conference in Djakarta, Jan. 1994.Google Scholar
- Karman. C. C., Schobben. H. P. M., Scholten, M. C. Th: “Ecotoxicological risk of produced water from oil production platforms in the Stattjord and Gullfaks area”. TNO 1994, (Restricted).Google Scholar
- OLF: Environmental report 1993–1995. OLE Stavanger, 1995.Google Scholar
- Reed. Mark. “Bioaccumulation modelling”. 1995 International Seminar on Produced Water, Trondheim, Sept. 1995.Google Scholar
- Riksheim, H., Johnsen, S. “Determination of Produced Water Constituents in the Vicinity of Production Fields in the North Sea”, paper SPE 27151 presented at the 1993 SPE Conference in Djakarta, Jan. 1994.Google Scholar
- Rye, H., Reed, M., Melbye, A., Johnsen, S.: “Dilution Factors for Produced Water Releases”. 6th International Symposium Oil Field Chemicals, Geilo, Norway, March 1995.Google Scholar
- SETAC: “Life Cycle Assessment”. Report from workshop in Leiden Dec. 1991. SETAC, 1992.Google Scholar
- Wit, R., Taselaar, H., Heijungs, R., Huppes, G.: “REIM: LCA-based Ranking of Environmental Investment Models”. CML Report 103, Leiden 1993.Google Scholar
- Øfjord, G. D., Vik, E. A., Bakke, S., Johnson, D. R., Edvardson, T.: “CHARM — Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management of Offshore E&P Chemicals”. 6th International Symposium Oil Field Chemicals, Geilo, Norway, March 1995.Google Scholar