Effects of the Water Soluble Fraction of Crude Oil on Marine Fish Larvae and Crustaceans

  • Clelia Booman
  • Lars Føyn
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 52)

Abstract

The amount of produced water annually released in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea has been increasing dramatically, exceeding 20 million m3 in 1992. Produced water has become the main contributor to oil discharges from Norwegian offshore operations, and over 2,000 tons of oil are expected to be released in the year 2000 (OLF, 1993). Oil separators are used to keep oil concentrations in discharged water well below the internationally regulated maximum value of 40 mg/liter. However, with the available technology it is not possible to efficiently recover the water soluble components of oil before the production water is released to the marine environment (OLF, 1993). The aromatic fraction, widely considered as the main contributor to both crude oil and produced water toxicity (Shiu et al., 1990, Johnsen et al., 1994) is thus enriched in produced water compared to concentrations in the original crude oil.

Keywords

Phenol Benzene Toluene Hydrocarbon Respiration 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clelia Booman
    • 1
  • Lars Føyn
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Marine ResearchBergenNorway

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