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Sub-Lethal Effects of Oil-Produced Water on the Early Life Stages of Turbot

  • Susan M. Stephens
  • J. Anne Brown
  • Martin A. Ferguson
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 52)

Abstract

Oil extraction generates produced water, a complex mixture of formation and injection waters contaminated with oil, metals and various treatment chemicals (Fillo et al 1992; Tibbetts et al 1992). Although the amount of oil entering the North Sea declined by approximately one third between 1988 and 1993, produced water release increased by a similar proportion over this period (Taylor 1994). In 1990, approximately 160 x 106 tons of produced water were discharged into the UK sector of the North Sea (HMSO 1991). With produced water volumes of this magnitude, disposal is an important issue for both operators and regulatory authorities.

Keywords

Produce Water Petroleum Hydrocarbon Early Life Stage Sublethal Effect Water Soluble Fraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan M. Stephens
    • 1
  • J. Anne Brown
    • 1
  • Martin A. Ferguson
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biological Science Hatherly LaboratoriesUniversity of ExeterExeterUK
  2. 2.Amerada HessLondonUK

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