Advertisement

Epstein-Barr Virus and Lymphomas: An Overview

  • Lawrence S. Young
  • Gerald Niedobitek
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 280)

Abstract

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpes virus which is found as a predominantly asymptomatic infection in all human communities. Primary EBV infection usually occurs in childhood and, once infected, individuals become life-long virus carriers. The virus is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a self-limiting lymphoproliferative disease resulting from delayed primary EBV infection, and is also associated with a number of malignant tumours, including Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) and lymphomas arising in immunocompromised patients (Miller, 1990). The B lymphotropic nature of EBV is evidenced by its association with these lymphoproliferations and by the ability of the virus to immortalise normal resting B lymphocytes in vitro, converting them into permanently growing lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) (Nilsson et al., 1971). When peripheral blood lymphocytes from EBV seropositive individuals are placed in culture, the few virus-infected B-cells that are present regularly give rise to spontaneous outgrowth of EBV-transformed LCLs provided that immune T-cells are either removed or inhibited by addition of cyclosporin A to the culture (Rickinson et al., 1984). This phenomenon highlights the importance of EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in controlling EBV-induced B-cell transformation (Fig. 1).

Keywords

Virus Latent Membrane Protein Oral Hairy Leukoplakia Chronic Virus Carrier 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allday MJ, Crawford DH (1988) Role of epithelium in EBV persistence and pathogenesis of B-cell tumours. Lancet i:855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anagnostopoulos I, Hummel M, Finn T, Tiemann M, Korbjuhn P, Dimmler C, Gatter K, Dallenbach F, Parwaresch M, Stein H (1992) Heterogenous Epstein-Barr virus infection patterns in peripheral T cell lymphoma of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy type. Blood 80:1804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson ML, Stam NJ, Klein G, Pleg HL, Masucci MG (1991) Aberrant expression of HLA Class-I antigens in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Int J Cancer 47:544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borisch B, Hennig I, Laeng RH, Waelti ER, Kraft R, Laissue J (1993) Association of the subtype 2 of the Epstein-Barr virus with T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the midline granuloma type. Blood 82:858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bornkamm GW, Hudewentz J, Freese UK, Zimber U (1982) Deletion of the non-transforming Epstein-Barr virus strain P3HR-1 causes fusion of the large internal repeat to the DSL region. J Virol 43:952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyle MJ, Sewell WA, Sculley TB, Apolloni A, Turner JJ, Swanson CE, Penny R, Cooper DA (1991) Subtypes of Epstein-Barr virus in human immunodeficiency virus-associated non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Blood 78:3004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Boyle MJ, Vasak ET, Schuchnigg M, Turner JJ, Sculley T, Penny R, Cooper DA, Tindall B, Sewell WA (1993) Subtypes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in Hodgkin’s disease: association between B-type EBV and immunocompromise. Blood 81:468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brooks L, Yao QY, Rickinson AB, Young LS (1992) Epstein-Barr virus latent gene transcription in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells: coexpression of EBNA1, LMP1, and LMP2 transcripts. J Virol 66:2689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cleary ML, Nalesnik MA, Shearer WT, Sklar J (1988) Clonal analysis of transplant-associated lymphoproliferations based on the structure of genomic termini of the Epstein-Barr virus. Blood 72:349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dambaugh T, Hennessy K, Chamnankit L, Kieff E (1984) U2 region of Epstein-Barr virus DNA may encode Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:7632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Bruin PC, Jiwa NM, van der Valk P, van Heerde P, Gordijn R, Ossenkoppele GJ, Walboomers JMM, Meijer CJLM (1993) Detection of Epstein-Barr virus nucleic acid sequences and protein in nodal T-celi lymphomas: relation between latent membrane protein-1 positivity and clinical course. Histopathol 23:509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deacon EM, Pallesen G, Niedobitek G, Crocker J, Brooks L, Rickinson AB, Young LS (1993) Epstein-Barr virus and Hodgkin’s disease: transcriptional analysis of virus latency in the malignant cells. J Exp Med 177:339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Delabie J, Ceuppens JL, Vandenberghe P, de Boer M, Coorevits L, de Wolf-Peters C (1993) The B7/BB1 antigen is expressed by Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin’s disease and contributes to the stimulating capacity of Hodgkin’s disease-derived cell lines. Blood 82:2845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gerber P, Nonoyama M, Lucas S, Perlin E, Goldstein LI (1972) Oral excretion of Epstein-Barr virus by healthy subjects and patients with infectious mononucleosis. Lancet ii:988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Glaser R, Zhang HY, Yao K, Zhu HC, Wang FX, Li GY, Wen DS, Li YP (1989) Two epithelial tumour cell lines (HNE-1 and HONE-1) latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus that were derived from nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:9524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gratama JW, Oosterveer MAP, Zwaan FE, Lepoutre J, Klein G, Ernberg I (1988) Eradication of Epstein-Barr virus by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: implications for the site of viral latency. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:8693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Greenspan JS, Greenspan D, Lennette ET, Abrams DI, Conant MA, Petersen V, Freese UK (1985) Replication of Epstein-Barr virus within the epithelial cells of oral “hairy” leukoplakia an AIDS-associated lesion. N Engl J Med 313:1564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gregory CD, Murray RJ, Edwards CF, Rickinson AB (1988) Downregulation of cell adhesion molecules LFA-3 and ICAM-1 in Epstein-Barr virus-positive Burkitt’s lymphoma underlies tumour cell escape from virus-specific T cell surveillance. J Exp Med 167:1811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gregory CD, Rowe M, Rickinson AB (1990) Different Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-B cell interactions in phenotypically distinct clones of a Burkitt lymphoma cell line. J gen Virol 71:1481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Raphael M, Audouin J, Diebold J, Lisse I, Pedersen C, Oksenhendler E, Marelle L Pallesen G (1993 a) In situ demonstration of Epstein-Barr virus small RNAs (EBER1) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphomas: correlation with tumour morphology and primary site. Blood 82:619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Rea D, Raphael M, Sandvej K, Delecluse HJ, Gisselbrecht C, Marelle L, van Krieken HJ, Pallesen G (1993b) Epstein-Barr virus-latent gene expression and tumour cell phenotype in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Correlation of lymphoma phenotype with three distinct patterns of viral latency. Am J Pathol 143:1072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Harabuchi Y, Yamanaka N, Kataura A, Imai S, Kinoshita T, Mizuno F, Osato T (1990) Epstein-Barr virus in nasal T-cell lymphomas in patients with midline granuloma. Lancet 335:128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Herbst H, Dallenbach F, Hummel M, Niedobitek G, Pileri S, Müller-Lantzsch N, Stein H (1991a) Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein expression in Hodgkin-and Reed-Sternberg cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:4766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Herbst H, Dallenbach F, Hummel M, Niedobitek G, Finn T, Young LS, Rowe M, Müller-Lantzsch N, Stein H (1991b) Epstein-Barr virus DNA and latent gene products in Ki-1 (CD30)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Blood 78:2666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Herbst H, Steinbrecher E, Niedobitek G, Young LS, Brooks L, Müller-Lantzsch N, Stein H (1992) Distribution and phenotype of Epstein-Barr virus-harboring cells in Hodgkin’s disease. Blood 80:484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Herbst H, Stein H, Niedobitek G (1993) Epstein-Barr virus and CD30+ malignant lymphomas. Crit Rev Oncog 4:191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Herndier BG, Sanchez HC, Chang KL, Chen YY, Weiss LM (1993) High prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus in the Reed-Sternberg cells of HIV-associated Hodgkin’s disease. Am J Pathol 142:1073PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hummel H, Anagnostopoulos I, Korbjuhn P, Dallenbach F, Stein H (1993) Epstein-Barr virus infection patterns in malignant lymphomas. In The Epstein-Barr virus and associated diseases. Tursz T, Pagano JS, Ablashi DV, de The G, Lenoir G, Pearson GR, eds (Colloque INSERM/John Libbey Eurotext) 225:433Google Scholar
  29. Jones JF, Shurin S, Abramowsky C, Tubbs RR, Sciotto CG, Wahl R, Sands J, Gottman D, Katz BZ, Sklar J (1988) T-cell lymphomas containing Epstein-Barr viral DNA in patients with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infections. N Engl J Med 318:733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kamel OW, van de Rijn M, Weiss LM, Del Zoppo GJ, Hench PK, Robbins BA, Montgomery PG, Warnke RA, Dorfman RF (1993) Reversible lymphomas associated with Epstein-Barr virus occurring during methotrexate therapy for rheumatoid arthritis and dermatomyositis. N Engl J Med 328:1317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kanavaros P, Jiwa M, van der Valk P, Walboomers J, Horstman A, Meijer CJLM (1993) Expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent gene products and related cellular activation and adhesion molecules in Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas arising in patients without overt pre-existing immunodeficiency. Hum Pathol 24:725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kawaguchi H, Miyashita T, Herbst H, Niedobitek G, Asada M, Tsuchida M, Hanada R, Kinoshita A, Sakurai M, Kobayashi N, Mizutani S (1993) Subclinical proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus infected T-lymphocytes in Epstein-Barr virus associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS). J Clin Invest 92:1444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kerr BM, Lear AL, Rowe M, Croom-Carter D, Young LS, Rookes SM, Gallimore PH, Rickinson AB (1992) Three transcriptionally distinct forms of Epstein-Barr virus latency in somatic cell hybrids: cell phenotype dependence of virus promoter usage. Virology 187:189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Khanna R, Burrows SR, Kurilla MG, Jacob CA, Misko IS, Sculley TB, Kieff E, Moss DJ (1992) Localisation of Epstein-Barr virus cytotoxic T-cell epitopes using recombinant vaccinia — implications for vaccine development. J Exp Med 176:169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kieff E, Liebowitz D (1990) Epstein-Barr virus and its replication. In Virology. Fields BN, Knipe DM, eds (New York: Raven Press) p1889Google Scholar
  36. Kikuta H, Taguchi Y, Tomizawa K, Kojima K, Kawamura N, Ishizaka A, Sakiyama Y, Matsumoto S, Imai S, Kinoshita T, Koizumi S, Osato T, Kobayashi I, Hamada I, Hirai K (1988) Epstein-Barr virus genome-positive T lymphocytes in a boy with chronic active EBV infection associated with Kawasaki-like disease. Nature 333:455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Korbjuhn P, Anagnostopoulos I, Hummel M, Tiemann M, Dallenbach F, Parwaresch MR, Stein H (1993) Frequent latent Epstein-Barr virus infection of neoplastic T cells and bystander B cells in human immunodeficiency virus-negative European peripheral pleomorphic T-cell lymphomas. Blood 82:217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Laux G, Economou A, Farrell P (1989) The terminal protein gene 2 of Epstein-Barr virus is transcribed from a bi-directional latent promoter region. J gen Virol 70:3079PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lee SP, Thomas WA, Murray RJ, Khanim F, Kaur S, Young LS, Rowe M, Kurilla M, Rickinson AB (1993) HLA A2.1-restricted cytotoxic T cells recognizing a range of Epstein-Barr virus isolates through a defined epitope in latent membrane protein LMP2. J Virol 67:7428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lewin N, Aman P, Mellstedt H, Zech L, Klein G (1988) Direct outgrowth of in vivo Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells into permanent lines. Int J Cancer 41:892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Locker J, Nalesnik M (1989) Molecular genetic analysis of lymphoid tumours arising after organ transplantation. Am J Pathol 135:977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Magrath I, Jain V, Bhatia K (1993) Molecular epidemiology of Burkitt’s lymphoma. In The Epstein-Barr virus and associated diseases. Tursz T, Pagano JS, Ablashi DV, de The G, Lenoir G, Pearson GR, eds (Colloque INSERM/John Libbey Eurotext) 225:377Google Scholar
  43. Miller G (1990) Epstein-Barr virus — Biology pathogenesis and medical aspects. In Virology. Fields BN, Knipe DM, eds (New York: Raven Press) p1921Google Scholar
  44. Mori M, Kurozumi H, Akagi K, Tanaka Y, Imai S, Osato T (1992) Monoclonal proliferation of T cells containing Epstein-Barr virus in fatal infectious mononucleosis. N Engl J Med 327:58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Mueller N, Evans A, Harris NL, Comstock GW, Jellum E, Magnus K, Orentreich N, Polk F, Vogelman J, (1989) Hodgkin’s disease and Epstein-Barr virus — Altered antibody pattern before diagnosis. N Engl J Med 320:689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Munoz N, Davidson RJL, Witthoff B, Ericsson JE, De-The G (1978) Infectious mononucleosis and Hodgkin’s disease. Int J Cancer 22:10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Murray RJ, Kurilla MG, Griffin HM, Brooks JM, Mackett M, Arrand JR, Rowe M, Burrows SR, Moss DJ, Kieff E, Rickinson AB (1990) Human cytotoxic T cell responses against Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens demonstrated using recombinant vaccinia viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:2906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Murray RJ, Kurilla MG, Brooks JM, Thomas WA, Rowe M, Kieff E, Rickinson AB (1992) Identification of target antigens for the human cytotoxic T-cell response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) — implications for the immune control of EBV-positive malignancies. J Exp Med 176:157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Niedobitek G, Hamilton-Dutoit S, Herbst H, Finn T, Vetner M, Pallesen G, Stein H (1989) Identification of Epstein-Barr virus infected cells in tonsils of acute infectious mononucleosis by in situ hybridisation. Hum Pathol 20:796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Niedobitek G, Young LS, Lau R, Brooks L, Greenspan D, Greenspan J, Rickinson AB (1991a) Epstein-Barr virus infection in oral hairy leukoplakia: virus replication in the absence of a detectable latent phase. J gen Virol 72:3035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Niedobitek G, Hansmann ML, Herbst H, Young LS, Dienemann D, Hartmann CA, Finn T, Pitteroff S, Welt A, Anagnostopoulos I, Friedrich R, Lobeck H, Sam CK, Araujo I, Rickinson AB, Stein H (1991b) Epstein-Barr virus and carcinomas: undifferentiated carcinomas but not squamous cell carcinomas of the nasopharynx are regularly associated with the virus. J Pathol 165:17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Niedobitek G, Herbst H, Young LS, Brooks L, Masucci MG, Crocker J, Rickinson AB, Stein H (1992a) Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus infection in non-neoplastic lymphoid tissue. Blood 79:2520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Niedobitek G, Fahraeus R, Herbst H, Latza U, Ferszt A, Klein G, Stein H (1992b) The Epstein-Barr virus encoded membrane protein (LMP) induces phenotypic changes in epithelial cells. Virchows Arch B 62:55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Niedobitek G, Young LS (1994) Persistence of Epstein-Barr virus and the pathogenesis of virus-associated tumours. Lancet 343:333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nilsson K, Klein G, Henle W, Henle G (1971) The establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines from adult and from foetal human lymphoid tissue and its dependence on EBV. Int J Cancer 8:443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Pallesen G, Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Rowe M, Young LS (1991) Expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent gene products in tumour cells of Hodgkin’s disease. Lancet 337:320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pallesen G, Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Zhou X (1994) The association of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with T cell lymphoproliferations and Hodgkin’s disease: two new developments in the EBV field. Adv Cancer Res 62:179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Papadopoulos EB, Ladanyi M, Emanuel D, MacKinnon S, Boulad F, Carabasi MH, Castro-Malaspina H, Childs BH, Gillio AP, Small TN, Young JW, Kernan NA, O’Reilly RJ (1994) Infusions of donor leukocytes to treat Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 330:1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pedersen C, Gerstoft J, Lundgren JD, Skinhoj P, Bottzauw J, Geisler C, Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, Thorsen S, Lisse I, Ralfkiaer E, Pallesen G (1991) HIV-associated lymphoma: histopathology and association with Epstein-Barr virus genome related to clinical, immunological and prognostic factors. Eur J Cancer 27:1416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Raab-Traub N, Flynn K (1986) The structure of the termini of the Epstein-Barr virus as a marker of clonal cellular proliferation. Cell 47:883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rabson M, Gradoville L, Heston L, Miller G (1982) Non-immortalizing P3J-HR-1 Epstein-Barr virus: a deletion mutant of its transforming parent. J Virol 44:834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Randhawa PS, Yousem SA, Paradis IL, Dauber JA, Griffith BP, Locker J (1989) The clinical spectrum, pathology, and clonal analysis of Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in heart-lung transplant recipients. Am J Clin Pathol 92:177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Rickinson AB, Rowe M, Hart IJ, Yao QY, Henderson LE, Rabin H, Epstein MA (1984) T-cell-mediated regression of “spontaneous” and of Epstein-Barr virus-induced B cell transformation in vitro: studies with cyclosporin A. Cell Immunol 87:646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rickinson AB, Young LS, Rowe M (1987) Influence of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA 2 on the growth phenotype of virus-transformed B cells. J Virol 61:1310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Rowe M, Rooney CM, Rickinson AB, Lenoir GM, Rupani H, Moss DJ, Stein H, Epstein MA (1985) Distinctions between endemic and sporadic forms of Epstein-Barr virus-positive Burkitt’s lymphoma. Int J Cancer 35:435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rowe M, Rowe DT, Gregory CD, Young LS, Farrell PJ, Rupani H, Rickinson AB (1987) Differences in B cell growth phenotype reflect novel patterns of Epstein-Barr virus latent gene expression in Burkitt’s lymphoma cells. EMBO J 6:2743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Rowe M, Young LS, Cadwallader K, Petti L, Kieff E, Rickinson AB (1989) Distinction between Epstein-Barr virus type A (EBNA 2A) and type B (EBNA 2B) isolates extends to the EBNA 3 family of nuclear proteins. J Virol 63:1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Rowe M, Lear AL, Croom-Carter D, Davies AH, Rickinson AB (1992) Three pathways of Epstein-Barr virus gene activation from EBNA 1-positive latency in B lymphocytes. J Virol 66:122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rowlands DC, Ito M, Mangham DC, Reynolds G, Herbst H, Hallissey MT, Fielding JWL, Newbold KM, Jones EL, Young LS, Niedobitek G (1993) Epstein-Barr virus and carcinomas: rare association of the virus with gastric adenocarcinomas. Br J Cancer 68:1014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sam CK, Brooks LA, Niedobitek G, Young LS, Prasad U, Rickinson AB (1993) Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus infection in nasopharyngeal biopsies from a high nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk group. Int J Cancer 53:957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sample J, Young L, Martin B, Chatman T, Kieff E, Rickinson A, Kieff E (1990) Epstein-Barr virus types 1 and 2 differ in their EBNA-3A, EBNA-3B and EBNA-3C genes. J Virol 64:4084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Sample J, Brooks L, Sample C, Young LS, Rowe M, Rickinson A, Kieff E (1991) Restricted Epstein-Barr virus protein expression in Burkitt lymphoma is reflected in a novel EBNA-1 mRNA and transcriptional initiation site. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:6343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shibata D, Weiss LM (1992) Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric adenocarcinoma. Am J Pathol 140:769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Shibata D, Weiss LM, Hernandez AM, Nathwani BN, Bernstein L, Levine AM (1993) Epstein-Barr virus-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Blood 81:2102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Sixbey JW, Nedrud JG, Raab-Traub N, Hanes RA, Pagano JS (1984) Epstein-Barr virus replication in oropharyngeal cells. N Engl J Med 310:1225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sixbey JW, Shirley P, Chesney PJ, Buntin DM, Resnick L (1989) Detection of a second widespread strain of Epstein-Barr virus. Lancet ii:761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Speck SH, Strominger JL (1989) Transcription of Epstein-Barr virus in latently infected, growth-transformed lymphocytes. Adv Viral Oncol 8:133Google Scholar
  78. Strauch B, Andrews LL, Siegel N, Miller G (1974) Oropharyngeal excretion of Epstein-Barr virus by renal transplant recipients and other patients with immunosuppressive drugs. Lancet i:234234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Swerdlow SH (1992) Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders: a morphologic, phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of disease. Histopathol 20:373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Thomas JA, Hotchin NA, Allday MJ, Amlot P, Rose M, Yacoub M, Crawford DH (1990) Immunohistology of Epstein-Barr virus-associated antigens in B cell disorders from immunocompromised individuals. Transplantation 49:944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Thomas JA, Felix DH, Wray D, Southam JC, Cubie H, Crawford DH (1991) Epstein Barr virus gene expression and epithelial cell differentiation in oral hairy leukoplakia. Am J Pathol 139:1369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Torsteinsdottir S, Brautbar C, Ben Bassat H, Klein E, Klein G (1988) Differential expression of HLA antigens on human B-cell lines of normal and malignant origin: a consequence of immune surveillance or a phenotype vestige of the progenitor cells? Int J Cancer 41:913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wang D, Liebowitz D, Kieff E (1985) An EBV membrane protein expressed in immortalized lymphocytes transforms established rodent cells. Cell 43:831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang F, Gregory CD, Rowe M, Rickinson AB, Wang D, Birkenbach M, Kikutani H, Kishimoti T, Kieff E (1987) Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 specifically induces expression of the B-cell activation antigen CD23. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:3452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wang F, Gregory C, Sample C, Rowe M, Liebowitz D, Murray R, Rickinson A, Kieff E (1990) Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein (LMP-1) and nuclear proteins 2 and 3 c are effectors of phenotypic changes in B lymphocytes: EBNA-2 and LMP-1 cooperatively induce CD23. J Virol 64:2309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Weiss LM, Jaffe ES, Liu XF, Chen YY, Shibata D, Medeiros LJ (1992) Detection and localisation of Epstein-Barr viral genome in angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy and angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy-like lymphoma. Blood 79:1789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Wilson JB, Levine AJ (1992) The oncogenic potential of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 in transgenic mice. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 182:375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Wu TC, Mann RB, Charache P, Hayward SD, Staal S, Lambe BC, Ambinder RF (1990) Detection of EBV gene expression in Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin’s disease. Int J Cancer 46:801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yao QY, Rickinson AB, Epstein MA (1985) A re-examination of the Epstein-Barr virus carrier state in healthy seropositive individuals. Int J Cancer 35:35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yao QY, Ogan P, Rowe M, Wood M, Rickinson AB (1989a) The Epstein-Barr virus:host balance in acute infectious mononucleosis patients receiving Acyclovir anti-viral therapy. Int J Cancer 43:61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yao QY, Ogan P, Rowe M, Wood M, Rickinson AB (1989b) Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells persist in the circulation of Acyclovir-treated virus carriers. Int J Cancer 43:67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Yao QY, Rowe M, Martin B, Young LS, Rickinson AB (1991) The Epstein-Barr virus carrier state: Dominance of a single growth-transforming isolate in the blood and in the oropharynx of healthy virus carriers. J gen Virol 72:1579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yeung WM, Zong YS, Chiu CT, Sham JST, Choy DTK, Ng MH (1993) Epstein-Barr virus carriage by nasopharyngeal carcinoma in situ. Int J Cancer 53:746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yoneda N, Tatsumi E, Kawanishi M, Teshigawara K, Masuda S, Yamamura Y, Inui A, Yoshino G, Oimomi M, Baba S, Yamaguchi N (1990) Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome in benign polyclonal proliferative T cells of a young male patient. Blood 76:172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Young LS, Yao QY, Rooney CM, Sculley TB, Moss DJ, Rupani H, Laux G, Bornkamm GW, Rickinson AB (1987) New type B isolates of Epstein-Barr virus from Burkitt’s lymphoma and from normal individuals in endemic areas. J gen Virol 68:2853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Young L, Alfieri C, Hennessy K, Evans H, O’Hara C, Anderson KC, Ritz J, Shapiro RS, Rickinson A, Kieff E, Cohen JI (1989) Expression of Epstein-Barr virus transformation-associated genes in tissues of patients with EBV lymphoproliferative disease. N Engl J Med 321:1080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Young L, Lau R, Rowe M, Niedobitek G, Packham G, Shanahan F, Rowe DT, Greenspan D, Greenspan JS, Rickinson AB, Farrell PJ (1991) Differentiation-associated expression of the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 transactivator protein in oral hairy leukoplakia. J Virol 65:2868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Zimber U, Adldinger HK, Lenoir GM, Vuillaume M, Knebel-Doeberitz M, Laux G, Desgranges C, Wittmann P, Freese UK, Schneider U, Bornkamm GW (1986) Geographical prevalence of two types of Epstein-Barr virus. Virology 154:56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence S. Young
    • 1
  • Gerald Niedobitek
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Cancer StudiesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations