Biological ice nucleation

  • Steven E. Lindow


In summary, molecular techniques greatly expanded our knowledge of the nature of biological ice nucleation, especially in bacteria. What little is known of the nature of fungal ice nuclei, however, suggests that they may be quite different from those of procrayotes (Ashworth and Kieft, 1995). The investigation of fungal ice nuclei may be of particular interest because of the relatively high temperature at which they are active in ice nucleation activity and their apparent lower susceptibility to environmental extremes such as temperature and pH compared to bacterial ice nuclei (Ashworth and Kieft, 1995). The many applications of warm temperature biological ice nuclei will benefit from models of the structure of these ice nucleation sites and of an understanding of the biological processes that lead to differential expression of biological ice nuclei. It can be anticipated that biological ice nuclei will be exploited for a number of scientific and commercial purposes because of the ease by which they can be manipulated, introduced into other organisms and potentially increased in efficiency based on the knowledge of their structure.


Silver Iodide Xanthomonas Campestris American Phytopathological Society Assay Temperature Frost Injury 
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© Thomson Science 1998

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  • Steven E. Lindow

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