Namespaces and Files
C++ supports modular programming through a mechanism called namespace. A namespace is a logical unit that contains related declarations and definitions. The idea of modular programming is to divide a large program into small and logically related parts for easy management and information hiding. Dividing a large program into different parts and storing them in different files can also help to achieve modular programming (this is more so in C and FORTRAN 77). A few useful tools (some in UNIX and Linux) are also presented for managing files, creating a library, profiling a program, debugging a program, and timing a program. Towards the end of the chapter, two standard libraries on character strings and input and output streams are given. Finally, iterative algorithms for solving nonlinear equations are described.