Prescribing Habitat Layouts: Analysis of Optimal Placement for Landscape Planning

  • Curtis H. Flather
  • Michael Bevers
  • John Hof


Physical restructuring of landscapes by humans is a prominent stress on ecological systems (Rapport et al. 1985). Landscape restructuring occurs primarily through land-use conversions or alteration of native habitats through natural resource management. A common faunal response to such land-use intensification is an increased dominance of opportunistic species leading to an overall erosion of biological diversity (Urban et al. 1987). Slowing the loss of biodiversity in managed systems will require interdisciplinary planning efforts that meld analysis approaches from several fields, including landscape ecology, conservation biology, and management science.


Conservation Planning Landscape Planning Habitat Amount Reserve Design Spatial Optimization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, E., Forrest, S.C., Clark, T.W., and Richardson, L. 1986. Paleobiology, biogeography, and systematics of the black-footed ferret, Mustela nigripes (Audubon and Bachman) 1851. Great Basin Nat. Mem. 8:11–62.Google Scholar
  2. Andrén, H. 1994. Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: a review. Oikos 71:355–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnqvist, G., and Wooster, D. 1995. Meta-analysis: synthesizing research findings in ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol. Evol. 10:236–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bevers, M., and Fiather, C.H. 1999a. Numerically exploring habitat fragmentation effects on populations using cell-based coupled map lattices. Theor. Pop. Biol. 55:61–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bevers, M., and Fiather, C.H. 1999b. The distribution and abundance of populations limited at multiple spatial scales. J. Anim. Ecol. 68:976–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bevers, M., Hof, J., Uresk, D.W., and Schenbeck, G.L. 1997. Spatial optimization of prairie dog colonies for black-footed ferret recovery. Oper. Res. 45:495–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Block, W.M., Morrison, M.L., Verner, J., and Manley, P.N. 1994. Assessing wildlife-habitat-relationships models: a case study with California oak woodlands. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 22:549–561.Google Scholar
  8. Breiman, L., Friedman, J.H., Olshen, R.A., and Stone, C.J. 1984. Classification and Regression Trees. Belmont, California: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  9. Carpenter, S.R. 1990. Large-scale perturbations: opportunities for innovation. Ecology 71:2038–2043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark, T.W. 1989. Conservation Biology of the Black-Footed Ferret, Mustela nigripes. Wildlife Preservation Trust Special Scientific Report Number 3. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Wildlife Preservation Trust International.Google Scholar
  11. Conroy, M.J. 1993. The use of models in natural resource management: prediction, not prescription. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 58:509–519.Google Scholar
  12. Conroy, M.J., Cohen, Y., James, F.C., Matsinos, Y.G., and Maurer, B.A. 1995. Parameter estimation, reliability, and model improvement for spatially explicit models of animal populations. Ecol. Appl. 5:17–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. de Roos, A.M., and Sabelis, M.W. 1995. Why does space matter? In a spatial world it is hard to see the forest before the trees. Oikos 74:347–348.Google Scholar
  14. Doak, D.F., and Mills, L.S. 1994. A useful role for theory in conservation. Ecology 75:615–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dunning, J.B., Jr., Stewart, D.J., Danielson, B.J., Noon, B.R., Root, T.L., Lamberson, R.H., and Stevens, E.E. 1995. Spatially explicit population models: current forms and future uses. Ecol. Appl. 5:3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Etienne, R.S., and Heesterbeek, J.A.P. 2000. On optimal size and number of reserves for metapopulation persistence. J. Theor. Biol. 203:33–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fahrig, L. 1991. Simulation methods for developing general landscape-level hypotheses of single-species dynamics. In Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology, eds. M.G. Turner and R.H. Gardner, pp. 416–442. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  18. Fahrig, L. 1997. Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population extinction. J. Wildl. Manage. 61:603–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fahrig, L. 1998. When does fragmentation of breeding habitat affect population survival? Ecol. Model. 105:273–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fiather, C.H., and Bevers, M. 2002. Patchy reaction-diffusion and population abundance: the relative importance of habitat amount and arrangement. Am. Nat. 159: In press.Google Scholar
  21. Flather, C.H., Wilson, K.R., Dean, D.J., and McComb, W.C. 1997. Identifying gaps in conservation networks: of indicators and uncertainty in geographic-based analyses. Ecol. Appl. 7:531–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forsman, E.D., Meslow, E.C., and Wight, H.M. 1984. Distribution and biology of the Spotted Owl in Oregon. Wildl. Monogr. 87:1–64.Google Scholar
  23. Frank, K., and Wissel, C. 1998. Spatial aspects of metapopulation survival—from model results to rules of thumb for landscape management. Landsc. Ecol. 13:363–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gardner, R.H. 1999. RULE: map generation and a spatial analysis program. In Landscape Ecological Analysis: Issues and Application, eds. J.M. Klopatek and R.H. Gardner, pp. 280–303. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gauch, H.G. 1982. Multivariate Analysis in Community Ecology. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gilpin, M.E. 1987. Spatial structure and population vulnerability. In Viable Populations for Conservation, ed. M.E. Soulé, pp. 125–139. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Green, D.G. 1994. Connectivity and complexity in landscapes and ecosystems. Pac. Conserv. Biol. 1:194–200.Google Scholar
  28. Hansson, L., and Angelstam, P. 1991. Landscape ecology as a theoretical basis for nature conservation. Landsc. Ecol. 5:191–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hargrove, W.W., and Pickering, J. 1992. Pseudoreplication: a sine qua non for regional ecology. Landsc. Ecol. 6:251–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harrison, S., and Bruna, E. 1999. Habitat fragmentation and large-scale conservation: what do we know for sure? Ecography 22:225–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harrison, S., Stahl, A., and Doak, D. 1993. Spatial models and Spotted Owls: exploring some biological issues behind recent events. Conserv. Biol. 7:950–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Havens, K.E., and Aumen, N.G. 2000. Hypothesis-driven experimental research is necessary for natural resource management. Environ. Manage. 25:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hill, M.F., and Caswell, H. 1999. Habitat fragmentation and extinction thresholds on fractal landscapes. Ecol. Letters 2:121–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hobbs, R.J., Saunders, D.A., and Arnold, G.W. 1993. Integrated landscape ecology: a western Australian perspective. Biol. Conserv. 64:231–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hof, J., and Bevers, M. 1998. Spatial Optimization for Managed Ecosystems. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hof, J., and Fiather, C.H. 1996. Accounting for connectivity and spatial correlation in the optimal placement of wildlife habitat. Ecol. Model. 88:143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hof, J., and Raphael, M.G. 1997. Optimization of habitat placement: a case study of the Northern Spotted Owl in the Olympic Peninsula. Ecol. Appl. 7:1160–1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Holthausen, R.S., Raphael, M.G., McKelvey, K.S., Forsman, E.D., Starkey, E.E., and Seaman, D.E. 1995. The Contribution of Federal and Nonfederal Habitat to Persistence of the Northern Spotted Owl on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-352. Portland, Oregon: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.Google Scholar
  39. Kareiva, P. 1990. Population dynamics in spatially complex environments: theory and data. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 330:175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kareiva, P., and Wennergren, U. 1995. Connecting landscape patterns to ecosystem and population processes. Nature 373:299–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lamberson, R.H., McKelvey, R., Noon, B.R., and Voss, C. 1992. A dynamic analysis of Northern Spotted Owl viability in a fragmented landscape. Conserv. Biol. 6:505–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lamberson, R.H., Noon, B.R., Voss, C., and McKelvey, K.S. 1994. Reserve design for territorial species: the effect of patch size and spacing on the viability of the Northern Spotted Owl. Conserv. Biol. 8:185–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lande, R. 1987. Extinction thresholds in demographic models of territorial populations. Am. Nat. 130:624–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lande, R. 1988. Demographic models of the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). Oecologia 75:601–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Law, B.S., and Dickman, C.R. 1998. The use of habitat mosaics by terrestrial vertebrate fauna: implications for conservation and management. Biodiver. Conserv. 7:323–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lawton, J.H. 1999. Are there general laws in ecology? Oikos 84:177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McKelvey, K., Noon, B.R., and Lamberson, R.H. 1993. Conservation planning for species occupying fragmented landscapes: the case of the Northern Spotted Owl. In Biotic Interactions and Global Change, eds. P.M. Kareiva, J.G. Kingsolver, and R.B. Huey, pp. 424–450. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  48. Meilen, K., Huff, M., and Hagestedt, R. 1995. HABSCAPES: Reference Manual and User’s Guide. Portland, Oregon: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region.Google Scholar
  49. Minta, S., and Clark, T.W. 1989. Habitat suitability analysis of potential translocation sites for black-footed ferrets in north-central Montana. In The Prairie Dog Ecosystem: Managing for Biological Diversity, eds. T.W. Clark, D. Hinckley, and T. Rich, pp. 29–46. Billings, Montana: USDI, Bureau of Land Management.Google Scholar
  50. Morrison, M.L., Timossi, I.C., and With, K.A. 1987. Development and testing of linear regression models predicting bird-habitat relationships. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:247–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Murphy, D.D., and Noon, B.R. 1992. Integrating scientific methods with habitat conservation planning: reserve design for Northern Spotted Owls. Ecol. Appl. 2:3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Noon, B.R., and McKelvey, K.S. 1996. Management of the Spotted Owl: a case history in conservation biology. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 27:135–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Noon, B., McKelvey, K., and Murphy, D. 1997. Developing an analytical context for multispecies conservation planning. In The Ecological Basis of Conservation: Heterogeneity, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity, eds. S.T.A. Pickett, R.S. Ostfeld, M. Shachak, and G.E. Likens, pp. 43–59. New York: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  54. Noon, B.R., and Murphy, D.D. 1994. Management of the Spotted Owl: the interaction of science, policy, politics, and litigation. In Principles of Conservation Biology, eds. G.K. Meffe and C.R. Carroll, pp. 380–388. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  55. Palmqvist, E., and Lundberg, P. 1998. Population extinctions in correlated environments. Oikos 83:359–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pimm, S.L., and Gilpin, M.E. 1989. Theoretical issues in conservation biology. In Perspectives in Ecological Theory, eds. J. Roughgarden, R.M. May, and S.A. Levin, pp. 287–305. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Rapport, D.J., Regier, H.A., and Hutchinson, T.C. 1985. Ecosystem behavior under stress. Am. Nat. 125:617–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Richardson, L., Clark, T.W., Forrest, S.C., and Campbell, T.M., III. 1987. Winter ecology of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) at Meeteetse, Wyoming. Am. Midl. Nat. 117:225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Roemer, D.M., and Forrest, S.C. 1996. Prairie dog poisoning in the Northern Great Plains: an analysis of programs and policies. Environ. Manage. 20:349–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.J., and Margules, C.R. 1991. Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: a review. Conserv. Biol. 5:18–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schemske, D.W., Husband, B.C., Ruckeishaus, M.H., Goodwillie, C., Parker, I.M., and Bishop, J.G. 1994. Evaluating approaches to the conservation of rare and endangered plants. Ecology 75:584–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Simberloff, D. 1988. The contribution of population and community biology to conservation science. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 19:473–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Skellam, J.G. 1951. Random dispersal in theoretical populations. Biometrika 38:196–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Suring, L.H., Crocker-Bedford, D.C., Flynn, R.W., Hale, C.S., Iverson, G.C., Kirchhoff, M.D., Schenck, T.E., Shea, L.C., and Titus, K. 1993. A Proposed Strategy for Maintaining Well-Distributed, Viable Populations of Wildlife Associated with Old-Growth Forests in Southeast Alaska. Report to an Interagency Committee. Juneau, Alaska: USDA, Forest Service, Alaska Region.Google Scholar
  65. Thomas, J.W., Forsman, E.D., Lint, J.B., Meslow, E.C., Noon, B.R., and Verner, J. 1990. A Conservation Strategy for the Northern Spotted Owl. Report of the Interagency Scientific Committee to Address the Conservation of the Northern Spotted Owl. Portland, Oregon: USDA, Forest Service.Google Scholar
  66. Thorne, E.T., and Belitsky, D.W. 1989. Captive propagation and the current status of free-ranging black-footed ferrets in Wyoming. In Conservation Biology and the Black-Footed Ferret, eds. U.S. Seal, E.T. Thorne, M.A. Bogan, and S.H. Anderson, pp. 223–234. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Trzcinski, M.K., Fahrig, L., and Merriam, G. 1999. Independent effects of forest cover and fragmentation on the distribution of forest breeding birds. Ecol. Appl. 9:586–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Turchin, P. 1998. Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  69. Turing, A.M. 1952. The chemical basis of morphogenesis. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 237:37–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Turner, M.G., Arthaud, G.J., Engstrom, R.T., Hejl, S.J., Liu, J., Loeb, S., and McKelvey, K. 1995. Usefulness of spatially explicit population models in land management. Ecol. Appl. 5:12–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Turner, M.G., and Gardner, R.H. 1991. Quantitative methods in landscape ecology: an introduction. In Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology, eds. M.G. Turner and R.H. Gardner, pp. 3–14. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  72. Urban, D.L., O’Neill, R.V., and Shugart, H.H. 1987. Landscape ecology. BioScience 37:119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, and USDA Forest Service. 1994. Black-Footed Ferret Reintroduction, Conata Basin/Badlands, South Dakota, Final Environmental Impact Statement. Pierre, South Dakota: USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  74. Van Deusen, P.C. 1996. Habitat and harvest scheduling using Bayesian statistical concepts. Can. J. For. Res. 26:1375–1383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Walters, C.J., and Holling, C.S. 1990. Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71:2060–2068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wennergren, U., Ruckelshaus, M., and Kareiva, P. 1995. The promise and limitations of spatial models in conservation biology. Oikos 74:349–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. With, K.A., and Crist, T.O. 1995. Critical thresholds in species’ responses to landscape structure. Ecology 76:2446–2459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. With, K.A., and King, A.W 1999. Extinction thresholds for species in fractal landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 13:314–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Curtis H. Flather
  • Michael Bevers
  • John Hof

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations