Advertisement

Tree Seedling Recruitment in a Temperate Deciduous Forest: Interactive Effects of Soil Moisture, Light, and Slope Position

  • Jake F. Weltzin
  • Philip B. Allen
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 166)

Abstract

Predicted changes in global and regional precipitation regimes are likely to affect the distribution, structure, composition, diversity of plant communities [e.g., (1995); (1998); (2000)], and, in particular, forest ecosystems (Hanson and Weltzin 2000). Forests of the southeastern United States may be particularly vulnerable to changes in precipitation regimes and soil moisture contents because the increases in potential evapotranspiration predicted for this region may eventually exceed summer precipitation (National Assessment Synthesis Team 2000). These changes are predicted to occur at rates that may exceed the ability of forests to adapt through changes in species composition (Pastor and Post 1988; Davis 1989; Overpeck et al. 1991). Ultimately, the composition of forests under potential future climates will depend on interactive effects of regional and local abiotic conditions, biotic interactions, and species life-history traits. For example, coexistence mechanisms that govern the relative success of different tree species within a community will vary at each life-history stage of the tree (Nakashizuka 2001). Given adequate reproduction and seed dispersal, seedling recruitment and juvenile survivorship may dictate community composition (Harper 1977; Peet and Christensen 1987; Kobe 1996).

Keywords

Shade Treatment Slope Position Time Domain Reflectometry Soil Surface Temperature Poplar Seedling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen CD, Breshears DD (1998) Drought-induced shift of a forest-woodland ecotone: Rapid landscape response to climate variation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 95:14839–14842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bachelet D, Neilson RP (2000) Biome redistribution under climate change. In Joyce LA, Birdsey R (Eds) The impact of climate change on America’s forests: A technical document supporting the USDA Forest Service RPA Assessment. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-59. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, pp 18–44.Google Scholar
  3. Bahari ZA, Pallardy SG, Parker WC (1985) Photosynthesis, water relations, and drought adaptation in six woody species of oak-hickory forests in central Missouri. For Sci 31:557–569.Google Scholar
  4. Berkowitz AR, Canham CD, Kelly VR (1995) Competition vs facilitation of tree seedling growth and survival in early successional communities. Ecology 76:1156–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brugnoli E, Farquhar GD (2000) Photosynthetic fractionation of carbon isotopes. In Leegood RC, Sharkey TD, von Caemmerer S (Eds) Photosynthesis: Physiology and metabolism. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Hingham, Massachusetts, pp 399–434.Google Scholar
  6. Davis MB (1989) Lags in vegetation response to greenhouse warming. Clim Change 15:75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ehleringer JR (1990) Correlations between carbon isotope discrimination and leaf conductance to water vapor in common beans. Plant Physiol 93:1422–1425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fisher RA (1960) The design of experiments. Seventh edition. Hafner, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Hanson PJ, Weltzin JF (2000) Drought disturbance from climate change: Response of United States forests. Sci Total Environ 262:205–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hanson PJ, Todd DE, Edwards NT, Huston MA (1995) Field performance of the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment. In Jenkins A, Ferrier RC, Kirby C (Eds) Ecosystem manipulation experiments: Scientific approaches, experimental design, and relevant results: Ecosystem Research Report Number 20. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, Belgium, pp 307–313.Google Scholar
  11. Hanson PJ, Todd DE, Huston MA, Joslin JD, Croker J, Augé RM (1998) Description and field performance of the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment: 1993–1996, ORNL TM-13586. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanson PJ, Todd DE, Amthor JS (2001) A six-year study of sapling and large-tree growth and mortality responses to natural and induced variability in precipitation and throughfall. Tree Physiol 21:345–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Harper JL (1977) Population biology of plants. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  14. Hinckley TM, Dougherty PM, Lassoie JP, Roberts JE, Teskey RO (1979) A severe drought: Impact on tree growth, phenology, net photosynthetic rate and water relations. Am Midl Nat 102:307–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Holmgren M (1996) The interactive effects of shade and drought on seedling growth and survival. Ph.D. dissertation. The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  16. Holmgren M (2000) Combined effects of shade and drought on tulip poplar seedlings: Trade-off in tolerance or facilitation? Oikos 90:67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huribert SH (1984) Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecol Monogr 54:187–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jones RH, Sharitz RL, Dixon PM, Segal DS, Scjmeoder RL (1994) Woody plant regeneration in four floodplain forests. Ecol Monogr 64:345–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kobe RK (1996) Intraspecific variation in sapling mortality and growth predicts geographic variation in forest composition. Ecol Monogr 66:181–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kolb TE, Steiner KC, McCormick LH, Bowersox TW (1990) Growth response of northern red-oak and yellow-poplar seedlings to light, soil moisture, and nutrients in relation to ecological strategy. For Ecol Manage 38: 65–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meinzer FC, Saliendra NZ, Crisosto CH (1992) Carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange in Coffea arabica during adjustment to different soil moisture regimes. Aust J Plant Physiol 19:171–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nakashizuka T (2001) Species coexistence in temperate, mixed deciduous forests. Trends Ecol Evol 16:205–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. National Assessment Synthesis Team (2000) Climate change impacts on the United States: The potential consequences of climate variability and change. US Global Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Neilson RP, Drapek RJ (1998) Potentially complex biosphere responses to transient global warming. Global Change Biol 4:505–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nyandiga CO, McPherson GR (1992) Germination of 2 warm-temperate oaks, Quercus-emoryi and Quercus-arizonica. Can J Forest Res 22(9): 1395–1401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Overpeck JT, Bartlein PJ, Webb T III (1991) Potential magnitude of future vegetation change in eastern North America: Comparisons with the past. Science 254:692–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pastor J, Post W M (1988) Response of northern forests to CO2-induced climate change. Nature 334:55–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pedersen, BS (1998) Modeling tree mortality in response to short-and long-term environmental stress. Ecological Modeling 105:347–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Peet RK, Christensen NL (1987) Competition and tree death. BioScience 37:586–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Roberts SW, Knoerr KR, Strain BR (1979) Comparative field water relations of four co-occurring forest tree species. Can J Bot 57:1876–1882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. SAS Institute (1989) SAS/STAT user≐s guide, Version 6. Fourth edition. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  32. Saverimuttu T, Westoby M (1996) Seedling longevity under deep shade in relation to seed size. J Ecol 84:681–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shapiro SS, Wilk MB (1965) An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika 52:591–611.Google Scholar
  34. Smith TM, Huston MA (1989) A theory of the spatial and temporal dynamics of plant communities. Vegetatio 83: 49–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Topp GC, Davis JL (1985) Measurement of soil water content using time domain reflectometry (TDR): a field evaluation. Soil Sci Soc Amer J 49:19–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vance NC, Zaerr JB (1991) Influence of drought stress and low irradiance on plant water relations and structural constituents in needles of Pinus ponderosa seedlings. Tree Physiol 8:175–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. VEMAP Members (1995) Vegetation/ecosystem modeling and analysis project: Comparing biogeography and bio-geochemistry models in a continental-scale study of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate change and CO2 doubling. Global Biogeochem Cycles 9:407–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. von Ende CN (1993) Repeated measures analysis: Growth and other time-dependent measures. In Scheiner SM, Gurevitch J (Eds) Design and analysis of ecological experiments. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 113–137.Google Scholar
  39. Wallace LL, Dunn EL (1980) Comparative photosynthesis of three gap phase successional tree species. Oecologia 45:331–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Walters MB, Reich PB (1996) Are shade tolerance, survival, and growth linked? Low light and nitrogen effects on hardwood seedlings. Ecology 77:841–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Walters MB, Reich PB (2000) Seed size, nitrogen supply, and growth rate affect tree seedling survival in deep shade. Ecology 81:1887–1901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zar JH (1996) Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jake F. Weltzin
  • Philip B. Allen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations