Sampling Heliothis spp. on Soybean

  • Ronald E. Stinner
  • J. R. BradleyJr.
  • John W. Van Duyn
Part of the Springer Series in Experimental Entomology book series (SSEXP)


The species of the genus Heliothis may represent the most important insect pest complex world-wide with respect to potential crop loss. These noctuid species exhibit wide host ranges, high fecundity, and great vagility. In the United States, two species, the corn earworm, H. zea (Boddie), and the tobacco budworm, H. virescens (Fabricius), are considered serious pests of many agriculturally important crops. A comprehensive bibliography of these two species was recently prepared by Kogan et al. (1978), and studies on economic thresholds and sampling Heliothis spp. on cotton, corn, soybean, and other host plants were compiled in a publication by the Southern Regional Cooperative Project S-59 (Sterling 1979).


Sugar Migration Corn Europe Cage 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adkisson, P. L. 1972. The integrated control of the insect pests of cotton. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. Ecol. Anim. Contr. Habitat Manage. 4: 175–188.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, J., D. Gonzalez, and D. V. Gokhale. 1972. Sequential sampling plans for the bollworm, Heliothis zea. Environ. Entomol. 1: 771–780.Google Scholar
  3. Barber, G. W. 1937. Seasonal availability of food plants of two species of Helio this in eastern Georgia. J. Econ. Entomol. 30: 150–158.Google Scholar
  4. Barber, G. W. 1941. Hibernation of the corn earworm in southeastern Georgia. USDA Tech. Bull. 791: 17 p.Google Scholar
  5. Barnes, G., B. F. Jones, and W. P. Boyer. 1974. Control insects on soybeans. Ark. Agr. Ext. Serv. Leafl. 193 (rev.): 6 p.Google Scholar
  6. Bottrell, D. G., and P. L. Adkisson. 1977. Cotton insect pest management. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 22: 451–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boyer, W. P: 1974. Soybean insect scouting in Arkansas. Ark. Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. pp. 1–3.Google Scholar
  8. Boyer, W. P., and W. A. Dumas. 1963. Soybean insect survey as used in Arkansas. USDA Coop. Econ. Insect Rep. 13: 91–92.Google Scholar
  9. Boyer, W. P., W. H. Whitcomb, G. C. Dowell, and R. Bell. 1963. Notes on Heliothis in Arkansas. USDA Coop. Econ. Insect Rep. 13: 109–111.Google Scholar
  10. Caron, R. E., J. R. Bradley Jr., R. H. Pleasants, R. L. Rabb, and R. E: Stinner. 1978. Overwinter survival of Heliothis zea produced on late-planted field corn in North Carolina. Environ. Entomol. 7: 193–196.Google Scholar
  11. D’Auria, J. M., and R. Bennett. 1975. X-rays and trace elements. Chemistry 48: 17–19.Google Scholar
  12. Deitz, L. L., J. W. Van Duyn, J. R. Bradley Jr., R. L. Rabb, W. M. Brooks, and R. E. Stinner. 1976. A guide to the identification and biology of soybean arthropods in North Carolina. N.C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 238: 264 p.Google Scholar
  13. Falter, J., and J. Van Duyn. 1973. Soybean insect control. N.C. Agr. Ext. Serv. Insect Notes i(rev): 5 p.Google Scholar
  14. Graham, H. M., and O. T. Robertson. 1970. Host plants of Heliothis virescens and H. zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 63: 1261–1265.Google Scholar
  15. Graham, H. M., N. S. Hernandez, Jr., and J. R. Llanes. 1972. The role of host plants in the dynamics of populations of Heliothis spp. Environ. Entomol. 1: 424–431.Google Scholar
  16. Isely, D. 1935. Relation of hosts to abundance of cotton bollworm. Ark. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 320: 30 p.Google Scholar
  17. Johnson, M. W., R. E. Stinner, and R. L. Rabb. 1975. Ovipositional response of Heliothis zea (Boddie) to its major hosts in North Carolina. Environ. Entomol. 4: 291–297.Google Scholar
  18. Kogan, J., D. K. Sell, R. E. Stinner, J. R. Bradley, Jr., and M. Kogan. 1978. The literature of arthropods associated with soybean. V. A bibliography of Heliothis zea (Boddie) and H. virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Univ. of Illinois, College of Agriculture, INTSOY Ser. 17. 242 p.Google Scholar
  19. Lincoln, C. 1972. Seasonal abundance. pp. 2–7 in Distribution, abundance, and control of Heliothis species in cotton and other host plants. S. Coop. Ser. Bull. 169: 92 p.Google Scholar
  20. Morrison, D. E., J. R. Bradley, Jr., and J. W. Van Duyn. 1979. Populations of corn earworm and associated predators after applications of certain soil-applied pesticides to soybeans. J. Econ. Entomol. 72: 97–100.Google Scholar
  21. Neunzig, H. H. 1960. The pupae of Heliothis zea and Heliothis vierscens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 53: 551–552.Google Scholar
  22. Neunzig, H. H. 1963. Wild host plants of the corn earworm and the tobacco bud-worm in eastern North Carolina. J. Econ. Entomol. 56: 135–139.Google Scholar
  23. Neunzig, H. H. 1964. The eggs and early-instar larvae of Heliothis zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 57: 98–102.Google Scholar
  24. Neunzig, H. H. 1969. The biology of the tobacco budworm and the corn ear-worm in North Carolina with particular reference to tobacco as a host. N. C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 196: 76 p.Google Scholar
  25. Pieters, E. P., and W. L. Sterling. 1975. Sequential sampling cotton squares damaged by boll weevils or Heliothis spp. in the Coastal Bend of Texas. J. Econ. Entomol. 68: 543–545.Google Scholar
  26. Quaintance, A. L., and C. T. Brues. 1905. The cotton bollworm. USDA Div. Entomol. Bull. 50: 155 p.Google Scholar
  27. Rainey, R. C. 1978. The evolution and ecology of flight: the “oceanographic” approach. pp. 33–48 in H. Dingle, ed. Evolution of insect migration and diapause. Springer-Verlag, N. Y. 284 p.Google Scholar
  28. Rainey, R. C., and R. J.’V. Joyce. 1972. The use of airborne Doppler equipment in monitoring wind-fields for airborne insects. 7th Int. Aerospace Instrum. Symp. Cranfield. 8.1–8. 4.Google Scholar
  29. Roach, S. H. 1975. Heliothis spp.: Larvae and associated parasites and diseases on wild host plants in the Pee Dee area of South Carolina. Environ. Entomol. 4: 725–728.Google Scholar
  30. Roach, S. H., and L. Ray. 1976. Pattern of emergence of adult Heliothis from fields planted to cotton, corn, tobacco, and soybeans. Environ. Entomol. 5: 628–630.Google Scholar
  31. Schaefer, G. W. S. 1976. Radar observations of insect flight. Symp. Royal Entomol. Soc. London. 7: 157–197.Google Scholar
  32. Sell, D. K., G. S. Whitt, and L. K. Lee. 1974. Inheritance of est-II phenotypes in the corn earworm. J. Hered. 65: 243–244.Google Scholar
  33. Shepard, M., G. R. Carver, and S. G. Turnipseed. 1974. A comparison of three sampling methods for arthropods in soybeans. Environ. Entomol. 3: 227–232.Google Scholar
  34. Slosser, J. E., J. R. Phillips, G. A. Herzog, and C. R. Reynolds. 1975. Overwinter survival and spring emergence of the bollworm in Arkansas. Environ. Entomol. 4: 1015–1024.Google Scholar
  35. Sterling, W. L. 1973. Sequential sampling for cotton insects. Folia Entomol. Mex. 25–26: 55–56.Google Scholar
  36. Sterling, W. L., ed. 1979. Economic thresholds and sampling of Heliothis species on cotton, corn, soybeans and other host plants. S. Coop. Ser. Bull. 231: 159 p.Google Scholar
  37. Sterling, W. L., and E. P. Pieters. 1975. Sequential sampling for key arthropods of cotton. Tex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Dep. Entomol. Tech. Rep. 24: 21 p.Google Scholar
  38. Stinner, R. E., R. L. Rabb, and J. R. Bradley, Jr. 1977. Natural factors operating in the populations dynamics of Heliothis zea in North Carolina. Proc. Int. Congr. Entomol. 15: 622–642.Google Scholar
  39. Turnipseed, S. G. 1974. Sampling soybean insects by various D-Vac, sweep, and ground cloth methods. Fla. Entomol. 57: 217–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald E. Stinner
  • J. R. BradleyJr.
  • John W. Van Duyn

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations