Forest Communities

  • Stephen R. Kessell
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


As discussed in the last chapter, ordinations of stands that were environmentally similar except for the drainages in which they occurred produced the lake influence-drainage area complex gradient. Although the distribution of stands along this gradient formed a near continuum, three distinct modes or groupings were recognized that corresponded to the McDonald, Camas, and North Fork drainage units. In the following discussions, communities and species are treated by using this tripartate division of the study area. Comparisons between and among drainages are made, and similarities as well as differences in these drainages’ communities and species composition are noted.


Forest Community Mature Stand Mesic Site North Fork Pinus Contorta 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen R. Kessell
    • 1
  1. 1.Gradient Modeling, Inc.MissoulaUSA

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