Vertical Control

  • Teodor J. Blachut
  • Adam Chrzanowski
  • Jouko H. Saastamoinen


Urban planners, public works departments, engineering companies, and those involved in physical changes in a city area must work on a three-dimensional model of the city. Therefore, a knowledge of vertical distances between various points in urban areas is as important as the knowledge of their horizontal position.


Junction Point Bench Mark Plumb Line Orthometric Height Vertical Angle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teodor J. Blachut
    • 1
  • Adam Chrzanowski
    • 2
  • Jouko H. Saastamoinen
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research Council of CanadaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.University of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

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