Vertical Control

  • Teodor J. Blachut
  • Adam Chrzanowski
  • Jouko H. Saastamoinen

Abstract

Urban planners, public works departments, engineering companies, and those involved in physical changes in a city area must work on a three-dimensional model of the city. Therefore, a knowledge of vertical distances between various points in urban areas is as important as the knowledge of their horizontal position.

Keywords

Europe Assure Gasoline Refraction Excavation 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teodor J. Blachut
    • 1
  • Adam Chrzanowski
    • 2
  • Jouko H. Saastamoinen
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research Council of CanadaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.University of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

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