Chi Square

  • Albert K. Kurtz
  • Samuel T. Mayo


In Chapters 8 and 10, we discussed five of the best measures of the degree of relationship existing between two variables. All five are excellent measures of the degree of association between the two variables. We employed them, not primarily to find out whether there was or was not any (nonchance) relationship between the variables, but rather to measure the amount, degree, or extent of such relationship. For such a purpose, they are eminently proper procedures.


Influenza Vaccination Decimal Place Column Total Expected Frequency Theoretical Frequency 
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  1. Lewis, D. and Burke, C. J. The use and misuse of the chi-square test. Psychological Bulletin, 1949, 46, 433–489. See also replies by three statisticians and further discussion by Lewis and Burke in the same journal, 1950, 47, 331–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fuller, Frances F. Preferences for male and female counselors. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1964, 42, 463–467.Google Scholar
  3. Teesdale, C. Ecological observations on the molluscs of significance in the transmission of bilharziasis in Kenya. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1962, 27, 759–782.Google Scholar
  4. Sigurjönsson, J., et al. Experience with influenza vaccination in Iceland, 1957. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1959, 20, 401–409.Google Scholar
  5. This method of getting successive probabilities from the preceding ones is not well known, although it was given in Freeman, G. H., and Halton, J. H. Note on an exact treatment of contingency, goodness of fit and other problems of significance. Biometrika, 1951, 38, 141–149.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. See page 59 of Merle W. Tate and Richard C. Clelland. Nonparametric and Shortcut Statistics. Danville, Ill.: Interstate Printers and Publishers, 1957.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert K. Kurtz
    • 1
  • Samuel T. Mayo
    • 2
  1. 1.Winter ParkUSA
  2. 2.Foundations of Education, School of EducationLoyola University of ChicagoChicagoUSA

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