• Claude E. Welch
  • Leslie W. Ottinger
  • John P. Welch
Part of the Comprehensive Manuals of Surgical Specialties book series (CMSS)


Hemorrhoids are symptomatic, conglomerate masses composed of arteries, arterioles, veins, and surrounding soft tissues. There is evidence that in the normal person erectile tissues are found in the anorectum that are very similar to those in the corpora cavernosa of the penis.13 There is free communication between arteries and veins in these areas. Congestion and/or inflammation can lead to symptoms of bleeding, protrusion, or thrombosis; when these symptoms appear the diagnosis of hemorrhoids is made.11,12 With increasing size and protrusion, mucous membrane of the rectum may be extruded to form a true prolapse. After prolonged periods of time secondary hemorrhoids may develop between the primary hemorrhoids.


Mucous Membrane Anal Canal Rubber Band Internal Sphincter Internal Hemorrhoid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claude E. Welch
    • 1
  • Leslie W. Ottinger
    • 1
  • John P. Welch
    • 2
  1. 1.Massachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.University of ConnecticutHartfordUSA

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