Propionibacterium Acnes: Present Status and Role in Acne Vulgaris

  • S M. Puhvel

Abstract

Propionibacterium acnes is the predominant anaerobic bacterium on normal human skin. As such, it has generally been regarded as a relatively harmless saprophyte of minimal clinical significance. The only pathologic process with which P. acnes has commonly been associated is acne vulgaris, the disease from which the organism derives its name.

Keywords

Placebo Hydrolysis Lipase Bacillus Meningitis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cummins CS (1975) Identification of Propionibacterium aenes and related organisms by precipitin tests with trichloroacetic acid extracts. J Clin Microbiol 104-110Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cunliffe WJ Cotterill JA (1975) The acnes. London, W. B. Saunders Co.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Douglas AC Gunter SE (1946) The taxonomic position of Corynebacterium aenes. J Bacteriol 52: 15-23Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fleming A (1909) On the etiology of acne vulgaris and its treatment by vaccines. Lancet I: 1035Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frank SB (ed) (1979) Acne: Update for the practitioner.. Yorke Medical Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gilchrist TC (1900) A bacteriological and microscopical study of over 300 vesicular and pustular lesions of the skin, with a research upon the etiology of acne vulgaris. Johns Hopkins HosptJ Report 9:400-430Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gilchrist TC (1903) The etiology of acne vulgaris. J Cutan Dis 2 I: 107-120Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gloor M Graumann V Kionke M Wiegand I Friedrich HC (1972) Menge und Zusammensetzung der Hautoberftachendenlipide bei Patienten mit Acne vulgaris und gesunden Vergleichspersonen. I Mitteilung Arch Dermatol Forsch 242:316-322Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goltz RW Kjartansson S (1966) Oral tetracycline treatment on bacterial flora in acne vulgaris. Arch Dermatol 93:92-100Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gould OJ Cunliffe WJ Holland KT (1977) Chemotaxis and acne. J Invest Dermatol 68: 25 IGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gowland G Ward RM Holland KT Cunliffe WJ (1978) Cellular immunity to P. aenes in the normal population and patients with acne vulgaris. Br J Dermatol 99:43–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Greenman J Holland KT Cunliffe WJ (1979) Growth rates and exoenzyme production by P. acnes grown in continuous culture. J Invest Dermatol 72:285–286Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    HoefHer U (1977) Enzymatic and hemolytic properties of Propionibacterium aenes and related bacteria. J Clin Microbiol 6:555–558Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holland KT Cunliffe WJ Roberts CD (1978) The role of bacteria in acne vulgaris, a new approach. Clin Exp Dermatol 3:253–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Johnson GL Cummins CS (1972) Cell wall composition and deoxyribonucleic acid similarities among the anaerobic coryneforms, classical propionibacteria and strains of Araehnia propioniea. J Bacteriol 109: 1047–1066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kanaar P (1971) Lipolysis of skin surface lipids of acne vulgaris patients and healthy controls. Dermatologica 143: 121–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kellum RE (1979) Free fatty acid hypothesis: In: Frank SB (ed) Acne: Update for the practitioner. Yorke Medical Books, New York, pp 65-73Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kellum RE Strangfeld K (1969) Triglyceride hydrolysis by Corynebacterium aenes. J Invest Dermatol 52:255–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kellum RE Strangfeld K (1972) Acne vulgaris. Studies in pathogenesis: Fatty acids of human surface triglycerides from patients with or without acne. J Invest Dermatol 58:315–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kersey PJ Dahl MGC (1979) Delayed skin test reactivity to P. acnes in patients with acne. J Invest Dermatol 72:284Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kligman AM Katz AG (1968) Pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, I. Comedogenic properties of human sebum in the external ear canal of the rabbit. Arch Dermatol 98:53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kligman AM Wheatley VR Mills OH (1970) Comedogenicity of human sebum. Arch Dermatol 102:267–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lee WL Shalita AR (1978) Neutrophil chemotaxis by P. acnes and its inhibition by antibiotics. J Invest Dermatol 70:219Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Marples RR McGinley KJ (1974) Corynebacterium aenes and other anaerobic diptheroids from human skin. J Med Microbiol 7:349–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marples RR Downing DT Kligman AM (1971) Control of free fatty acids in human surface lipids by Corynebacterium aenes. J Invest Dermatol 56:127–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marples RR McGinley KJ Mills OJ (1973) Microbiology of comedones in acne vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol 60:80–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moore WEC Holdeman RV (1974) Propionibacterium. In: Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Buchanon RE, Gibbons NE (eds) 8th edn. The William and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, pp 633-641Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Morrey BF Fitzgerald RH Jr Kelly PJ et al. (1977) Diphtheroid osteomyelitis. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 59:527–530Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Muller HE (1971) Uber das Vorkommen von Neuraminidase bei Corynebacterium acnes. Z Med Mikrobiol Immunol 157:240–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Plewig G Kligman AM (1975) Acne: Morphogenesis and treatment. Springer Verlag, New York, Heidelberg, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Plewig G Schopf E (1975) Anti-inflammatory effects of antimicrobial agents: an in vivo study. J Invest Dermatol 65:532–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Plewig G Fulton JE Kligman AM (1971) Cellular dymanics of comedo formation in acne vulgaris. Arch Dermatol Forsch 242: 12–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Prevot AR (1948) Manuel de classification et de determination des bacteries anaerobies. Masson et Cie. Paris, pp 304-3 18Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Puhvel SM Reisner RM (1972) The production of hyaluronidase (hyaluronate lyase) by Corynehacterium acnes. J Invest Dermatol 58:66–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Puhvel SM Sakamoto M (1977) Are-evaluation of fatty acids as inflammatory agents in acne. J Invest Dermatol 68:93–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Puhvel SM Sakamoto M (1977) An in vivo evaluation of the effect of purified comedonal components in human skin. J Invest Dermatol 69:401–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Puhvel SM Sakamoto M (1978) The chemoattractant properties of comedonal components. J Invest Dermatol 71:324–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Puhvel SM Sakamoto M (1980) Cytotaxin production by comedonal bacteria (Propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium granu/osum, and S taphy/ococcus epidermidis). J Invest Dermatol 74:36–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Puhvel SM Barfatani M Warnick M Sternberg TH (1964) Study of antibody levels to Corynebacterium acnes. Arch Dermatol 90:421–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Puhvel SM Hoffman IK Reisner RM Sternberg TH (1967) Dermal hypersensitivity of patients with acne vulgaris to Corynebacterium acnes. J Invest Dermatol 49: 154–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Puhvel SM Amirian O Weintraub J Reisner RM (1977) Lymphocyte transformation in subjects with nodulo-cystic acne. Br J Dermatol 97:205–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pulverer G Sargo W Ko HL (1973) [Orig A] Bakteriophagen von Propionibacterium acnes. Zentralbl Bakteriol 225:353–363Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ray T Kellum RE (1971) Acne vulgaris; studies in pathogenesis: free fatty acid irritancy in patients with and without acne. J Invest Dermatol 57:6–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reisner RM Silver DZ Puhvel SM Sternberg TH (1968) Lipolytic activity of Corynehacterium aenes. J Invest Dermatol 51:190–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sabouraud R (1897) La seborrhee grasse et la pelade. Ann Inst Pasteur 11: 134–159Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Savin RC Turner MC (1966) Antibiotics and the placebo reaction in acne. JAMA 196:365–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schlesinger JJ Ross AL (1977) Propionibacterium aenes meningitis in a previously normal adult. Arch Intern Med 137:921–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Skinner PR Taylor AJ Coakham H (1978) Propionibacteria as a cause of shunt and postneurosurgical infections. J Clin Pathol 31: 1085–1090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Smith RF Willett NP (1968) Rapid plate method for screening hyaluronidase and chondroitin sulfatase producing microorganisms. Appl Microbiol 16:1434–1336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stewart WD Maddin S Nelson AJ et al. (1963) Therapeutic agents III acne vulgaris I. Tetracycline. Can Med Assoc J 89: 1096–1097Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sudmerson HJ Thompson ET (1909) The cultivation and biological characteristics of Bacillus acnes. J Pathol Bacteriol 14:224–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Unna PG (1896) Histopathology of the diseases of the skin from Molesworth EH Br Med J 1:1227–1229Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Voss JG (1970) Differentiation of two groups of Corynebacterium acnes. J Bacteriol 101:392–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Voss JG (1974) Acne vulgaris and free fatty acids: A review and criticism. Arch Dermatol 109:894–898PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Waitzkin R (1969) Latent Corynebacterium acnes infection of bone marrow. N Engl J Med 281: 1404–1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Webster GF Cummins CS (1978) Use of bacteriophage typing to distinguish Propionibacterium acnes Types I and II. J Clin Microbial 7:84–90Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Webster GF Leyden JJ Norman ME Nilsson UR (1978) Complement activation in acne vulgaris: In vitro studies with Propionibacterium aenes and Propionibacterium Rranulosum. Infect Immun 22:523–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Werner H (1964) Untersuchungen uber die Lipase-und Lecithenase-Aktivitat von aeroben und anaeroben Corynebacterium und von Propionibacterium-Arten. Zentralbl Bakteriol [Orig A] 204: 127–138Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Whiteside JA Voss JG (1973) Incidence and lipolytic activity of Proionibacterium acnes (Corynebacterium acnes I) and P. granulosum (C. acnes group II) in acne and in normal skin. J Invest Dermatol 60:94–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wilikinson PC O’Neill GJ Wapshaw KG (1973) Role of anaerobic coryneforms in specific and non-specific immunological reactions. II Production of a chemotactic factor specific for macrophages. Immunology 24:997–1006Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • S M. Puhvel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations