Historical Background

  • William P. LongmireJr.
  • Ronald K. Tompkins
Part of the Comprehensive Manuals of Surgical Specialties book series (CMSS)


Man’s recognition of the importance of the liver in health and disease and his concern with its functions date back many centuries. In the dawn of medicine, about 3000 B.C., medical papyri from the period of Imhotep in Egypt refer to a variety of diseases, including jaundice, and to their treatment by drugs, magic, and religion. The liver was regarded as the central part of the body in the time of Hammurabi in Mesopotamia (circa 2000 B.C.), and the liver of a sacrificed animal was considered to be a source of prophecies and divinations. Accordingly, the Mesopotamians made remarkably precise clay models of sheep livers in order to train their priests to be specialists in the observation of this organ. A number of these models have been preserved [2].


Portal Vein Hepatic Artery Liver Resection Hepatic Vein Hepatic Resection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Balasegaram M: Hepatic surgery: A review of a personal series of 95 major resections. Aust NZ J Surg 42: 1–10, 1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bender GA: Great Moments in Medicine. Detroit, Northwood Institute Press, 1966, pp 50–55Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bruns, cited by Beck C: Surgery of the liver. JAMA 38: 1063–1068, 1902Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burckhardt H: Beitrag zur Behandlung der Leberverletzungen. Zentralbl Chir 14: 88–99, 1887Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cantlie J: On a new arrangement of the right and left lobes of the liver. J Anat Physiol (London) (Section Proc Anat Soc Great Britain & Ireland) 32:iv–ix, 1898Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clatworthy HW Jr: Liver tumors. In SR Berenberg (ed), Liver Diseases in Infancy and Childhood. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1976, pp 231–238Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cooper S, Reese, D.M.: A Dictionary of Practical Surgery. New York, Harper, 1846, pp 490–504Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Couinaud C: Bases anatomiques des hépatectomies gauche et droite réglées, techniques qui en déroulent. J Chir (Paris) 70: 933–966, 1954Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Doty DB, Kugler HW, Moseley RV: Control of the hepatic parenchyma by direct compression: A new instrument. Surgery 67: 720–724, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Duckett JW, Montgomery HJ: Resection of primary liver tumors. Surgery 21: 455–469, 1947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Elias H, Petty D: Gross anatomy of the blood vessels and ducts within the human liver. Am J Anat 90: 59–111, 1952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fischer RP, Stremple JF, McNamara JJ, Guernsey JM: The rapid right hepatectomy. J Trauma 11: 742–747, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Galen: On the Natural Faculties (Transi. AJ Brock). Great Books of the Western World, Vol. 10. Chicago, Encyclopedia Britannica, 1952, pp 167–215Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Garrè C: On resection of the liver. Surg Gynecol Obstet 5: 331–341, 1907Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goldsmith NA, Woodburne RT: The surgical anatomy pertaining to liver resections. Surg Gynecol Obstet 105: 310–318, 1957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Healey JE Jr: Clinical anatomic aspects of radical hepatic surgery. J Int Coll Surg 22: 542–550, 1954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hippocratic Writings. (Transi. F Adams). Great Books of the Western World, Vol. 10. Chicago, Encyclopedia Britannica, 1952, pp 1–160Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hjortsjö C-H: The topography of the intrahepatic duct systems. Acta Anat (Basel) 11: 599–615, 1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Huggins CE, Carter EL: Partial hepatectomy employing differential hypothermia: An experimental study. Arch Surg 74: 189–200, 1957Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hunter J: The Works of John Hunter FRS, JF Palmer (ed). London, Longman Rees, Arme, Brown, Green & Longman, 1834Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Keen WW: Report of a case of resection of the liver for the removal of a neoplasm, with a table of seventy-six cases of resection of the liver for hepatic tumors. Ann Surg 30: 267–283, 1899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Langenbuch C: Ein Fall von Resektion eines linksseitigen Schniirlappens der Leber, Heilung. Berl Klin Wochenschr 25: 37–38, 1888Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lin TY: Results in 107 hepatic lobectomies with a preliminary report on the use of a clamp to reduce blood loss. Ann Surg 177: 413–421, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lin TY: A simplified technique for hepatic resection: The crush method. Ann Surg 180: 285–290, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lin TY, Chen KM, Liu TK: Total right hepatic lobectomy for primary hepatoma. Surgery 48: 1048–1060, 1960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lin TY, Hsu KY, Hsieh CM, Chen CS: Study on lobectomy of the liver: A new technical suggestion on hemihepatectomy and reports of three cases of primary hepatoma treated with total left lobectomy of the liver. J Formosan Med Assoc 57: 742–761, 1958Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Longmire WP Jr: Hepatic resection. In RM Zollinger (ed), Advances in Surgery, Vol 8. Chicago, Year Book, 1974, pp 29–61Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Longmire WP Jr, Marable SA: Clinical experiences with major hepatic resections. Ann Surg 154: 460–472, 1961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lortat-Jacob JL, Robert HG: Hépatectomie droite réglée. Presse Méd 60: 549–551, 1952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lücke T: Entfernung des linken krebsigen Leberlappans. Zentralbl Chir 18 (6): 115–116, 1891Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Madding GF, Lawrence KB, Kennedy PA: War wounds of the liver. Texas State J Med 42: 267–272, 1946Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    McClelland RN, Shires T: Management of liver trauma in 259 consecutive patients. Ann Surg 161: 248–257, 1965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mclndoe AH, Counseller VS: A report on the bilaterality of the liver. Arch Surg 15: 589–611, 1927Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mercadier MP, Clot J-P, Cady J-P: Right hepatectomy in the treatment of liver trauma. Am J Surg 124: 353–358, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pack GT, Baker HW: Total right hepatic lobectomy: Report of a case. Ann Surg 138: 253–258, 1953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pettinari V: La resezione epatica seconda la mia esperienza. Cong Soc Int Chir 16: 1169, 1955Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pickrell KL, Clay RC: Lobectomy of the liver. Arch Surg 48: 267–277, 1944Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pringle JH: Notes on the arrest of hepatic hemorrhage due to trauma. Ann Surg 48: 541–549, 1908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine (part 3, Section of Surgery) 16: 43–64, 1923Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Quattlebaum JK: Massive resection of the liver. Ann Surg 137: 787–795, 1952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rex H: Beiträge zur Morphologie der Säugerleber. Morphol Jahrb 14: 517–616, 1888Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shumacker JB Jr: Hemangioma of the liver: Discussion of symptomatology and report of patient treated by operation. Surgery 11: 209–222, 1942Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sigerist HE: The Great Doctors: A Biographical History of Medicine (Transl. Eden & Cedar Paul). Garden City, NY, Doubleday, 1958, pp 8–17Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Steiner MM: Primary carcinoma of the liver in childhood. Am J Dis Child 55: 807–824, 1938Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Storm FK, Longmire WP Jr: A simplified clamp for hepatic resection. Surg Gynecol Obstet 133: 103–104, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Terrier F, Auvray M: Les traumatismes du foie et des voies biliaires. Rev Chir 16: 717–776, 1896Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tiffany LM: Surgery of the liver. Boston Med Surg J 122: 557, 1890Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tinker MB, Tinker MB Jr: Resection of the liver. JAMA 112: 2006–2008, 1939Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tung TT, Quang ND: A new technique for operating on the liver. Lancet 1: 192–193, 1963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wangensteen OH: Cancer of the Esophagus and the Stomach. New York, American Cancer Society, 1951, pp. 94–97Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wendel W: Beiträge zuir Chirurgie der Leber. Arch Klin Chir 95: 887–894, 1911Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wendel W: Ueber Leberlappenresektion. Arch Klin Chir 114: 982–1000, 1920Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • William P. LongmireJr.
    • 1
  • Ronald K. Tompkins
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUCLA School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.UCLA School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations