Organization of Extrastriate Visual Areas in the Macaque Monkey

  • D. C. Van Essen
  • J. H. R. Maunsell
  • J. L. Bixby
Part of the Cortical Sensory Organization book series (CSO, volume 2)


In primates, the regions of cerebral cortex that are specifically visual in function occupy the entire occipital lobe plus substantial portions of the temporal and parietal lobes. The division of the occipital lobe into three areas by Brodmann (4) and others on the basis of cytoarchitectonic criteria has been widely accepted, but recent studies have demonstrated that the extrastriate occipital cortex (i.e., Brodmann’s areas 18 and 19) actually contains numerous distinct visual areas. In an Old World monkey, the macaque, five such areas have been identified to date, and in a New World monkey, the owl monkey, seven extrastriate areas have been found in the occipital and temporal lobes (1, 14, 21).


Visual Area Striate Cortex Middle Temporal Vertical Meridian Comparative Neurology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Allman, J. M. Evolution of the visual system in the early primates. Prog. Psychobiol. Physiol. Psychol., 7: 1–53, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allman, J. M., and Kaas, J. H. A representation of the visual field in the caudal third of the middle temporal gyrus of the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). BrainRes 31: 85–105, 1971.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allman, J. M., Kaas, J. H., and Lane, R. H. The middle temporal visual area (MT) in the bushbaby, Galago senegalensis. Brain Res., 57: 197–202, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brodmann, K. Beitrage zur histologischen Localisation der Grosshirnrinde. Dritte Mitteilung. Die Rindenfelder der nierderen Affen. J. Psychol. Neurol., Leipzig, 4: 177–226, 1905.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bruce, C. J., Desimone, R., and Gross, C. G. Large visual receptive fields in a polysensoiy area in the superior temporal sulcus of the macaque. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 3: 554, 1977.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cragg, B. G. The topography of the afferent projections in circumstriate visual cortex of the monkey studied by the Nauta method. Vision Res., 9: 733–747, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gattass, R., and Gross, C. G. A visuotopically organized area in the posterior superior temporal sulcus of the macaque. Assoc. Res. Vision Opthalmol, 18: 184 (Abstr.), 1979.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maunsell, J. H. R., Bixby, J. L., and van Essen, D. C. The middle temporal area (MT) in the macaque: architecture, functional properties and topographic organization. Soc. Neurosci Abstr., 5: 796, 1979.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Merzenich, M. M., Kaas, J. H. Sur, M., and Lin, C.-S. Double representation of the body surface within cytoarchitectonic areas 3b and 1 in “SI” in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). J. Comp. Neurol, 181: 47–74, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Montero, V. M. Patterns of connections from the striate cortex to cortical visual areas in superior temporal sulcus of macaque and middle temporal gyrus of owl monkey. J. Comp. Neurol 189: 45–55, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Newsome, W. T., and Allman, J. M. The interhemispheric connections of visual cortex in the owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus, and the bushbaby, Galago senegalensis. J. Comp. Neurol, 194: 209–234, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ungerleider, L. G., and Mishkin, M. The visual area in the superior temporal sulcus of Macaca mulatta; location and topographic organization. Anat. Rec., 190: 568, 1978.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weller, R. E., and Kaas, J. H. Connections of striate cortex with the posterior bank of the superior temporal sulcus in macaque monkeys. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 4: 650, 1978.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    van Essen, D. C. Visual areas of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Ann. Rev. Neurosci., 2: 227–263, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Van Essen, D. C., and Maunsell, J. H. R. Two–dimensional maps of the cerebral cortex. J. Comp. Neurol 191: 255–281, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van Essen, D. C., Maunsell, J. H. R., and Bixby, J. L. The middle temporal visual area in the macaque: myeloarchitecture, connections, functional properties and topographic organization, J. Comp. Neurol, 199: 293–326.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Van Essen, D. C., and Zeki, S. M. The topographic organization of rhesus monkey prestriate cortex. J. Physiol, London, 277: 193–226, 1978.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zeki, S. M. Representation of central visual fields in prestriate cortex of monkey. Brain Res., 14: 271–291, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zeki, S. M. Cortical projections from two prestriate areas in the monkey. BrainRes., 34: 19–35, 1971.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zeki, S. M. Functional organization of a visual area in the posterior bank of the superior temporal sulcus of the rhesus monkey. J. Physiol, London, 549–573, 1974.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zeki, S. M. Functional specialization in the visual cortex of the rhesus monkey. Nature, 274: 423–428, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The HUMANA Press Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Van Essen
    • 1
  • J. H. R. Maunsell
    • 1
  • J. L. Bixby
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of BiologyCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations