Hypertension in Pregnancy

  • Ch. Lauritzen

Abstract

In pregnancy a blood pressure of 140/90 is considered to be borderline. Higher readings are regarded as pathologic. Though the disadvantages of blood pressure measurement with the usual sphygmomanometers are well known, most investigations are based on this method. There are also studies on the direct measurement of intra-arterial blood pressure,33 but the authors found a relatively close correspondence to the usual, simpler methods of measurement. No correlation was found between blood pressure levels and arm circumference or skin-fold thickness in this area.

Keywords

Estrogen Angiotensin Proteinuria Renin Aldosterone 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adams EM, Finlayson H (1961) Familial aspects of pre-eclampsia and hypertension in pregnancy. Lancet II: 1375Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beller FK, MacGillivray IM (1978) Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bourne AW, Williams LH (1958) Hypertension and pregnancy, chap. 3. In: Recent Advances in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 9th ed. Churchill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brown JJ, Davies DL, Doak PB, Lever AF, Robertson JIS, Trust P (1966) Plasma renin concentration in the hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaec Brit Cwlth 73: 410Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chesley LC (1965) Renal function in pregnancy. Bull NY Acad Med 41: 811Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chesley LC (1978) Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy. Appleton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chesley LC, Cosgrove RA, Annitto JE (1962) A follow-up study of eclamptic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 83: 1360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Del Greco F, Krumlovsky FA (1972) The renal pressor system in human pregnancy. J Reprod Med 8: 98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferris RF, Stein JH, Kaufmann J (1972) Uterine blood flow and uterine renin secretion. J Clin Invest 51: 2827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Friedberg V (1979) Pathophysiology of late toxemia. In: Beller FK, MacGillivray IM (eds) Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 1Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gant F (1975) The nature of the angiotensin pressor response in normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancy. In: Rippmann ET, Stamm H, McEwan HP, Howie P (eds) Progress in EPH-Gestosis. Organisation Gestosis-Press, Basel, p 229Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gant NF, Madden JD, Siiteri PK, MacDonald PC (1975) The metabolic clearance rate of dehydroepi- androsterone sulfate. Am J Obstet Gynecol 123: 159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, Whalley PS (1978) Management of pregnancy-induced hypertension in the nulliparous patient remote from term. Semin Perinatol 2: 73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gordon RD, Parsons S, Symonds EM (1969) A prospective study of plasma renin activity in normal and toxaemic pregnancy. Lancet I: 347Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gordon RD, Symonds EM, Wilmshurst EG, et al. (1973) Plasma renin activity, plasma angiotensin and plasma and urinary electrolytes in normal and toxaemic pregnancy, including a prospective study. Clin Sci 45: 115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hammond ChB, Jelovsek FR, Lee KL, Creasman WT, Parker RT (1979) Effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy I. Metabolic effects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 255Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Helmer OM, Judson WE (1967) Influence of high renin substrate levels on renin-angiotensin system in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 99: 9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaulhausen H (1977) Blutdruckkontrolle bei Einnahme hormonaler Kontrazeptiva. Dtsch Ärztebl 74: 2695Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaulhausen H, Klingsiek L, Breuer H (1976) Veränderungen des Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosteron-Systems unter kontrazeptiven Steroiden. Beitrag zur Ätiologie der Hypertonie unter hormonalen Kontrazeptiva. Fortschr Med 94: 1925Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kokot F, Cekanski A (1972) Plasma renin activity in peripheral and uterine vein blood in pregnant and non-pregnant women. J Obstet Gynaec Brit Cwlth 79: 72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kyank H (1976) Critical review on the theories of EPH-gestosis. In: Vedrà B, Rippmann ET (eds) Grundlagen der EPH-Gestose. Organisation Gestosis-Press, Basel, p 11Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kyank H, Schwarz R, Retzke U (1978) Antihypertensive drugs in the treatment of preeclampsia. In: Beller FK, Mac Gillivray J (eds) Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 82Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Laragh HG (1971) The pill, hypertension and the toxemias of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 109: 210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    MacGillivray J (1961) Hypertension in pregnancy and its consequences. J Obstet Gynaec Brit Cwlth 68: 577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    MacGillivray J (1967) The significance of blood pressure and fluid volume changes in pregnancy. Scot Med J 12: 237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    MacGillivray J (1969) Hypertension in pregnancy. In: Kellar RJ (ed) Modern Trends in Obstetrics, vol. 4. Butterworths, London, pp 235–256Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    MacGillivray J (1974) Present knowledge of pregnancy hypertension and possible future lines of investigation. In: Rippert C, Rippmann ET (eds) EPH- Gestosis, Huber, Bern, p 180Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    MacGillivray J, Hytten FE, Taggart NA, Buchanan TJ (1961) The effect of sodium diuretic on total exchangeable sodium and total body water in preeclamptic toxaemia. J Obstet Gynaec Brit Cwlth 69: 3Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mauss, HJ (1978) Hochdrucktherapie bei Eklampsien mit Catapresan. In: Heilmeyer L, Holtmeier H- J, Pfeiffer EF (eds) Hochdrucktherapie. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 161Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Menzies DN (1964) Controlled trial of chlorothiazide in treatment of early pre-eclampsia. Brit Med 1: 739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morris NF (1966) Hypertension in pregnancy and its treatment. In: Antihypertensive Therapy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, p 324Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pritchard JA (1978) Summary of management of pregnancy-induced hypertension at Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas, Texas. In: Beller FK, MacGillivray J (eds) Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 77Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rafters EB, Ward AP (1968) The indirect method of recording blood pressure. Cardiovasc Res 2: 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Robertson W (1978) Uterine vascular pathology in hypertensive pregnancy. In: Beller FK, MacGillivray J (eds) Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 58Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Roulet FC (ed) (1961) Eclampsia and Pre-eclampsia in Pregnancy. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Symonds EM (1978) Endocrine changes in pregnancy hypertension. In: Beller FK, MacGillivray IM (eds) Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 30Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Symonds EM, Andersen GJ (1974) The effect of bed rest on plasma renin in hypertensive disease of pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaec Brit Cwlth 81: 676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Utian WH (1972) The true clinical features of post- menopause and oophorectomy and their response to therapy. S Afr Med J 46: 732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Weir HJ (1978) The renin-angiotensin aldosterone- system in preeclampsia. In: Beller FK, MacGillivray J (eds) Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 38Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Weir RJ, Paintin DB, Brown JJ, Fraser R, Lever AF, Robertson JAS, Young J (1962) A serial study in pregnancy of the plasma concentrations of renin, corticosteroids, electrolytes and proteins and of hematocrit and plasma volume. J Obstet Gynaec Brit Cwlth 78: 590CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ch. Lauritzen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations