Functional Analysis of the Glucocorticoid Receptor by Limited Proteolysis

  • Jan Carlstedt-Duke
  • Örjan Wrange
  • Sam Okret
  • John Stevens
  • Yee-Wan Stevens
  • Jan-Åke Gustafsson
Conference paper


Steroid hormones, like many other low-molecular-weight hormones and vitamins, exert their biological effect(s) via an intracellular receptor protein. Receptor proteins for each of the different groups of steroid hormones have been demonstrated. Thus, there are separate receptor proteins for androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, progestins, and vitamin D, respectively. The current model for the mechanism of action of steroid hormones is shown in Fig. 1. This model has been used for the past 15 years and the reader is referred to the abundant review articles on this topic for the details originally supporting the model.


Glucocorticoid Receptor P1798 Cell Triamcinolone Acetonide Limited Proteolysis Calculated Molecular Weight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aronow L (1979) In: Baxter JD, Rousseau GG (eds) Glucocorticoid Hormone Action. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 327–340Google Scholar
  2. Bourgeois S, Newby RF, Huet M (1978) Cancer Res 38: 4279–4284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlstedt-Duke J (1979) Thesis, Karolinska Institute, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  4. Carlstedt-Duke J, Gustafsson J-Å, Wrange Ö (1977) Biochim Biophys Acta 497: 507–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carlstedt-Duke J, Wrange Ö, Dahlberg E, Gustafsson J-Å, Högberg B (1979) J Biol Chem 254: 1537–1539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlstedt-Duke J, Okret S, Wrange Ö, Gustafsson J-Å (1982) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 4260–4264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carter DB, Chae C-B (1976) Biochemistry 15: 180–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cidlowski, JA (1980) Biochemistry 19: 6162–6170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Costello MA, Sherman MR (1979) The Endocrine Society 61st Annual Meeting abstract 273, p 141Google Scholar
  10. Crabtree GR, Smith KA, Munck A (1978) Cancer Res 38: 4268–4272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dahmer, MK, Quansey, MW, Bissen, ST, Pratt, WB (1981) J Biol Chem 256: 9401–9405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dunaway M, Manly SP, Matthews KS (1980) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 7181–7185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eisen HJ (1980) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 3893–3897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Francke U, Gehring U (1980) Cell 22: 657–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garroway NW, Orth DN, Harrison RW (1976) Endocrinology 98: 1092–1100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gehring U (1976) In: James VHT (ed) Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of Endocrinology, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 536–541Google Scholar
  17. Gialani S, Minowada J, Silvernail P, Nussbaum A, Kaiser N, Rosen F, Shimaoka K (1973) Cancer Res 33: 2653–2657Google Scholar
  18. Giannopoulos, G (1973) J Biol Chem 248: 3876–3883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Giannopoulos G, Mulay S, Solomon S (1973) J Biol Chem 248: 5016–5023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Govindan MV (1979) J Steroid Biochem 11: 323–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Govindan MV (1980a) Biochim Biophys Acta 631: 327–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Govindan MV (1980b) Exptl Cell Res 127: 293–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Govindan MV, Manz B (1980) Eur J Biochem 108: 47–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Govindan MV, Sekeris CE (1976) Steroids 28: 499–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Govindan MV, Sekeris CE (1978) Eur J Biochem 89: 95–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grove JR, Dieckmann BS, Schroer TA, Ringold GM (1980) Cell 21: 47–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gustafsson J-Å, Carlstedt-Duke J, Fuxe K, Carlström K, Okret S, Wrange Ö (1981) In: Fuxe F, Wetterberg L, Gustafsson J-Å (eds) Steroid hormone regulation of the brain. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 31–39Google Scholar
  28. Hansson L-A, Gustafsson SA, Carlstedt-Duke J, Gahrton G, Högberg B, Gustafsson J-Å (1981) J Steroid Biochem 14: 757–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee F, Mulligan R, Berg P, Ringold G (1981) Nature 294: 228–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lippman ME, Perry S, Thompson EB (1974) Cancer Res 34: 1572–1576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. McPartland RP, Milholland RJ, Rosen F (1977) Cancer Res 37: 4256–4260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Middlebrook JL, Aronow L (1977) Endocrinology 100: 271–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murakami N, Moudgil VK (1981a) Biochem J 198: 447–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Murakami N, Moudgil VK (1981b) Biochim Biophys Acta 676: 386–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Nordeen SK, Lan NC, Showers MO, Baxter JD (1981) J Biol Chem 256: 10503–10508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Okret S, Carlstedt-Duke J, Wrange Ö, Carlström K, Gustafsson J-Å (1981) Biochim Biophys Acta 677: 205–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Papamichail M, Tsokos G, Tsawdaroglou N, Sekeris CE (1980) Exp Cell Res 125: 490–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Payvar F, Wrange Ö, Carlstedt-Duke J, Okret S, Gustafsson J-Å, Yamamoto KR (1981) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 6628–6632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ringold GM, Yamamoto KR, Bishop JM, Varmus HE (1977) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 2879–2883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schmidt TJ, Harmon JM, Thompson EB (1980) Nature 286: 507–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schnarr M, Maurizot J-C (1981) Biochemistry 20: 6164–6169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sherman MR, Pickering LA, Rollwagen FM, Miller LK (1978) Federation Proc 37: 167–173Google Scholar
  43. Sherman MR, Moran MC, Neal RM, Niu E-M, Tuazon FB (1982) In: Lee HJ, Fitzgerald TJ (eds) Progress in Research and Clinical Applications of Corticosteroids. Heyden, Philadelphia, pp 45–66Google Scholar
  44. Sibley CH, Tomkins GM (1974) Cell 2: 221–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sibley CH, Yamamoto KR (1979) In: Baxter JD, Rousseau GG (eds) Glucocorticoid Hormone Action. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 357–376Google Scholar
  46. Simons SS, Thompson EB (1981) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 3541–3545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stevens J, Stevens Y-W (1979) Cancer Res 39: 4011–4021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Stevens J, Stevens Y-W (1981) Cancer Res 41: 125–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Stevens J, Stevens Y-W, Rhodes J, Steiner G (1978a) J Natl Cancer Inst 61: 1477–1485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Stevens J, Stevens Y-W, Sloan E, Rosenthal R, Rhodes J (1978b) Endocrine Res Comm 5: 91–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stevens J, Stevens Y-W, Rosenthal RL (1979) Cancer Res 39: 4939–4948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Stevens J, Stevens Y-W, Haubenstock H (1981a) The Endocrine Society 63rd Annual Meeting abstract 483, p 203Google Scholar
  53. Stevens J, Eisen HJ, Stevens Y-W, Haubenstock H, Rosenthal RL, Artishevsky A (1981b) Cancer Res 41: 134–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Thompson EB, Granner DK, Gelehrter TD, Hager GL (1979) Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation 6: 339–360Google Scholar
  55. Tsawdaroglou NG, Govindan MV, Schmid W, Sekeris CE (1981) Eur J Biochem 114: 305–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Varmus HE, Ringold G, Yamamoto KR (1979) In: Baxter JD, Rousseau GG, (eds) Glucocorticoid Hormone Action. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 253–278Google Scholar
  57. Westphal HM, Beato M (1980) Eur J Biochem 106: 395–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wilson EM, French FS (1979) J Biol Chem 254: 6310–6319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Wrange Ö (1979) Biochim Biophys Acta 582: 346–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Wrange Ö, Gustafsson, J-Å (1978) J Biol Chem 253: 856–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Wrange Ö, Carlstedt-Duke J, Gustafsson J-Å (1979a) In: Agarwal MK (ed) Proteases and Hormones. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam pp 141–157Google Scholar
  62. Wrange Ö, Carlstedt-Duke J, Gustafsson J-Å (1979b) J Biol Chem 254: 9284–9290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Yamamoto KR, Stampfer MR, Tomkins GM (1974) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71: 3901–3905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yamamoto KR, Gehring U, Stampfer MR, Sibley CH (1976) Rec Prog Hormone Res 32: 3–32Google Scholar
  65. Yamamoto KR, Chandler VL, Ross SR, Ucker DS, Ring JC, Feinstein SC (1981) Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 45, in pressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Carlstedt-Duke
  • Örjan Wrange
  • Sam Okret
  • John Stevens
  • Yee-Wan Stevens
  • Jan-Åke Gustafsson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations