The Outlook for Fisheries Research in the Next Ten Years

  • David H. Gushing
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


The first stage of the industrialization of fisheries had been completed between 1879 and 1910: steam-driven purse seiners worked for menhaden off the eastern seaboard of the United States from 1870, steam trawlers operated in the North Sea from 1881 onwards, and steam longliners fished in the Pacific halibut fishery from the first decade of the present century. The second stage of industrialization took place in the 1950s and 1960s, with the introduction of factory methods aboard stern trawlers. At the beginning of this period, most stocks were unexploited (Graham 1951) but by the mid-1960s most were heavily fished; distant water fisheries expanded with freezer trawlers from Europe and the USSR, with pelagic longliners from Japan and Korea in the subtropical oceans (Rothschild and Uchida, 1968), and the four major upwelling areas (off California, Peru, North West Africa, and Namibia and South Africa) were exploited by purse seiners working for fish meal and oil. The present world catch is about 60 million tons (averaged from 1975 to 1979) and today most regions, but not all, on Graham’s chart would be recorded as being overfished, that is, more fish are killed than are needed for the optimal or even the maximal yield. There were three components of demand: (1) that of the Russians and Japanese for a main source of protein, (2) that of Western Europe and North America for frozen fish rather than lightly iced fish, and (3) that of the need for fish meal as an additive in animal food stuffs (as a cheap source of the essential amino acids lysine and methionine, absent in vegetable protein such as soya).


Fish Meal Fishery Science Coastal State Fishing Effort Fishing Mortality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agger, P., I. Boetius, and H. Lassen. 1973. Error in the virtual population analysis. The effect of uncertainties in the natural mortality coefficient. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 35:93.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous. 1977. Report of the Ad Hoc Meeting on the Provision of Advice on the Biological Basis for Fisheries Management. ICES Coop. Res. Rept. 62, 16 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous. (1980). Summary of Status of the Stocks, December 1980. Northeast Fisheries Center, Lab. Rept. Doc. 80–37, National Marine Fisheries Service U.S. Dept. Commerce.Google Scholar
  4. Bakun, A., and R. Parrish. 1981. Environmental Inputs to Fishery Population Models for Eastern Boundary Current Regions. Workshop Rept. 28, IOC UNESCO pp. 1–37.Google Scholar
  5. Beverton, R. J. H., and S. J. Holt. 1957. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations. Fish. Invest. London 2. 19. 533 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Boalch, G. T., D. S. Harbour, and E. I. Butler. 1978. Seasonal phytoplankton in the western English Channel 1964–1974. J. Mar. Biol. Assor. UK NS 58(4): 943–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brander, K. J. (1977). The management of Irish Sea fisheries; A Review. Lab. Leaflet 36, Min. Agr. Fish. Food, London, 40 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Brander, K. J. (1981). Disappearance of common skate Rata batis from the Irish Sea. Nature 290(5801):48–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, B. E., J. A. Brenhan, M. D. Grosslein, E. G. Heyerdahl, and R. C. Hennemuth. 1975. The effect of fishing on the marine finfish biomass in the Northwest Atlantic from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras. Res. Bull. Int. Comm. North West Atl. Fish. 12:49–68.Google Scholar
  10. Csirke, J. 1980. Recruitment in the Peruvian anchovy and its dependence on the adult population. Rapp. Proc. Verb. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 177:307–313.Google Scholar
  11. Cushing, D. H. 1981. The effect of El Nino upon the Peruvian anchoveta stock. In: F. A. Richards (ed.), Coastal Upwelling. Amer. Geophys. Union, pp. 449–457.Google Scholar
  12. Cushing, D. H. 1982a. A simulacrum of the Iceland cod stock. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 40(1):27–36.Google Scholar
  13. Cushing, D. H. 1982b. Sources of Variability in the North Sea Ecosystem. Meeting on the North Sea. University of Hamburg, 3–8 September, 1981.Google Scholar
  14. FAO. 1980. ACMRR Working Party on the Scientific Basis of Determining Management Measures. FAO Fish. Rept. 236, 149 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Forney, J. L. 1977. Reconstruction of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) cohorts from examination of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) stomachs. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 34(7):925–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garrod, D. J. 1977. The North Atlantic cod. In: J. A. Gulland (ed.), Fish Population Dynamics. John Wiley, New York, pp. 216–242.Google Scholar
  17. Garstang, W. 1901–1903. The impoverishment of the sea. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK NS 6:1–70.Google Scholar
  18. Glover, R. S., G. A. Robinson, and J. M. Colebrook. 1972. Plankton in the North Atlantic-an example of the problems of analyzing variability in the environment. In: M. Ruivo (ed.), FAO Marine Pollution and Sea Life. Fishing News (Books), West Byfleet, Surrey, and London, pp. 439–445.Google Scholar
  19. Graham, G. M. 1935. Modern Theory of exploiting a fishery and application to North Sea trawling. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 10(2):264–274.Google Scholar
  20. Graham, G. M., Chairman. 1951. Report of discussion on developing Fishery Resources. Proc. United Nations Sci. Conf. on the Conservation and Utilization of Resources. Vol. 7, Wildlife and Fish Resources, pp. 60–66.Google Scholar
  21. Gulland, J. A. 1965. Estimation of mortality rates. Annex to Arctic Fisheries Working Report. ICES CM 1965. (Mimeo).Google Scholar
  22. Gulland, J. A. 1977. The analysis of data and development of models. In: J. A. Gulland (ed.), Fish Population Dynamics. John Wiley, New York pp. 67–95.Google Scholar
  23. Jones, R. (1964). Estimating population size from commercial statistics when fishing mortality varies with age. Rapp. Proc. Verb. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 155:210–214.Google Scholar
  24. Kesteven, G. L., J. A. Gulland, R. Jones, R. Barber, and L. Boerema. 1977. Report of the consultative group convened by the Minister of Fisheries in Peru to advise him on the state of the stocks of anchoveta and other pelagic species and on the course of action taken for the management of the fishery. Lima, Peru. July 1977, 17 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Lockwood, S. J., J. H. Nichols, and W. A. Dawson, 1981. The estimation of a mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.) spawning stock size by plankton survey. J. Plankt. Res. 3(2):217–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McHugh, J. L. 1970. Trends in Fishery Research. Amer. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 7, pp. 25–56.Google Scholar
  27. Murphy, G. I. 1965. A solution to the catch equation. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 22(1):191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pauly, D. 1980. On the interrelationship between natural mortality growth parameters and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 38(2):175–192.Google Scholar
  29. Pope, J. G. 1975. The application of mixed fisheries theory to the cod and red-fish stocks of Subarea 1 and Division 3K. Selected Papers Int. Comm. North West Atl. Fish. 1:163–169.Google Scholar
  30. Pope, J. G. 1980. Phalanx analysis: an extension of Jones’ length cohort analysis to multispecies cohort analysis. ICES CM G. 19, 6 pp. (mimeo.)Google Scholar
  31. Pope, J. G., and D. J. Garrod. 1975. Sources of error in catch and effort quota regulations with particular reference to variation in the catchability coefficient. Res. Bull. Int. Comm. North West Atl. Fish. 11:17–30.Google Scholar
  32. Popper, K. 1963. Conjectures and Refutations. 412 pp. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  33. Ricker, W. E. 1948. Methods of Estimating Vital Statistics of Fish Populations. Indiana Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. 15, 101 pp.Google Scholar
  34. Ricker, W. E. 1954. Stock and recruitment. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 11:559–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rothschild, B. J., and R. N. Uchica. 1968. The tuna resources of the oceanic regions of the Pacific Ocean. Univ. Washington Publ. Fish. NS 4, pp. 19–51.Google Scholar
  36. Russell, F. S. 1973. A summary of the observations of the occurrence of planktonic stages of fish off Plymouth 1924–72. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK NS 53: 347–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schaefer, M. B. 1954. Some aspects of the dynamics of populations important to the management of the commercial fish populations. Bull. Inter-Amer. Trop. Tuna Comm. 1 (2):27–56.Google Scholar
  38. Schaefer, M. B. 1957. A study of the dynamics of fishery for yellow-fin tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Bull. Inter-Amer. Trop. Tuna Comm. 2: 245–285.Google Scholar
  39. Shepherd, J. G. 1982. A versatile new stock and recruitment relationship tor fisheries and the construction of sustainable yield curves. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 40(1):67–75.Google Scholar
  40. Sheperd, J. G., and D. H. Gushing. 1980. A mechanism for density dependent survival of larval fish as the basis of a stock-recruitment relationship. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 39(2):160–167.Google Scholar
  41. Steele, J. H. 1974. The structure of marine ecosystems. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA, 123 pp.Google Scholar
  42. Thompson, W. F. 1936. Conservation of the Pacific Halibut. An International Experiment. Smithsonian Report for 1935, pp. 361–382.Google Scholar
  43. Ulltang, O. 1976. Catch per unit of effort in the Norwegian purse seine fishery for Atlanto-Scandian (Norwegian spring spawning) herring. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 155, pp. 91–101.Google Scholar
  44. Yamanaka, I., and H. Yamanaka. 1970. On the variation of the current pattern in the equatorial western Pacific Ocean and its relationship with the yellow-fin tuna stock. Proc. 2nd CSK Symposium, Tokyo. 527–533.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • David H. Gushing

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations