Definitions and Conceptual Orientations

  • Frederick R. Hine
  • George L. Maddox
  • Redford B. WilliamsJr.
  • Robert C. Carson
  • Redford B. WilliamsJr.


This chapter attempts to develop a functional definition of the emotional aspects of behavior, of emotion as subjective and bodily response to those features of the environment (external and internal) experienced by the organism as significant, and of emotion as motivation or pressure to act upon the environment to change or maintain it. Learning in certain of its basic forms (association, learning, conditioning) is intimately connected with emotional (motivational) processes. As we shall see, those types of learning deriving from Pavlov’s original experiments (classical conditioning) are involved in the process whereby circumstances and events come to have emotional significance (the learning of motives). Similarly, the learning of effective ways of meeting needs (satisfying motivations or drives) is an essential feature of the other major type of basic learning (operant or instrumental conditioning, reward learning). For this reason, we will deal with these more simple varieties of learning here rather than in a separate presentation.


Conditioned Stimulus Classical Conditioning Neutral Stimulus Emotional Behavior Instrumental Conditioning 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick R. Hine
    • 1
  • George L. Maddox
    • 2
  • Redford B. WilliamsJr.
    • 1
  • Robert C. Carson
    • 3
  • Redford B. WilliamsJr.
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Duke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Center for the Study of Aging and Human DevelopmentDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  5. 5.Department of PediatricsDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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