Biosynthesis of Peptides in Honeybee Venom Glands and Frog Skin: Structure and Multi-Step Activation of Precursors

  • Odd Nygård
  • Peter Westermann


The biosynthesis of peptides invariably proceeds via pre-pro-forms, which are cleaved and modified by a series of enzymatic reactions to ultimately yield the final product. The concept of limited proteolysis, originally developed for the conversion of zymogens to the active enzymes, has amply been documented in studies on the liberation of peptides from their respective precursors. One type of posttranslational reaction, the cleavage at pairs of lysine/arginine residues, as was first detected for proinsulin (1), has frequently been observed in precursor-product conversions. In the past years, the occurrence of other processing reactions has been documented which show apparently a more restricted distribution. In our laboratory, the biosynthesis of peptides in honeybee venom glands and, more recently, in amphibian skin has been investigated and the types of translational and post-translational reactions involved in the liberation of these peptides from larger precursors are described in this communication.


Frog Skin Venom Gland Signal Peptidase Skin Secretion Amphibian Skin 
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Copyright information

© The Human Press Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Odd Nygård
    • 1
  • Peter Westermann
    • 2
  1. 1.The Wenner-Gren InstituteUniversity of StockholmStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Central Institute of Molecular BiologyAcademy of Sciences of GDRBerlin-BuchGermany

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