Determining Probabilities

How to Apply the Chi Square Test and the Student’s t -Test
  • Donald W. Rogers


In general, real distributions are not the same as predicted or calculated distributions. A common and important problem iii statistics is to determine how much deviation from a predicted distribution may be ascribed to pure chance. In other words, we would like to know whether the sample we have tested is really a legitimate representative of the infinite population for which the distribution was calculated. As usual in statistics, we cannot say with certainty that the sample is or is not a representative of the infinite population, or as is said, has been drawn from the infinite population. We can, however, use statistics to obtain the shrewdest possible guess and to calculate the probability of our being wrong. In cases where statistics is applicable, this is all that can be done. Statistics is the mathematics of events in the future or events for which some essential information has been obscured from us so that we cannot calculate an unequivocal answer.


Confidence Limit Central Limit Theorem Stress Group Sample Standard Deviation Erythrocyte Count 
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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald W. Rogers

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