Host Range and Tissue Tropisms: Antibody-Dependent Mechanisms

  • James S. Porterfield
  • M. Jane Cardosa


The classic concept of viral infection involves an initial interaction between determinants on the surface of a virus and cellular receptor binding sites of appropriate viral specificity, followed by stages of penetration, uncoating, and replication of the viral genome. With most infections, antiviral antibody will inhibit the initial binding step, and in so doing, will reduce viral infectivity. However, in certain cell—virus interactions, the presence of antiviral antibody increases infectivity, a phenomenon which is known as antibody-dependent enhancement, or ADE, of viral infectivity [1–4]. The explanation for this apparent paradox is that this type of infection is mediated, not by specific viral receptors, but by cellular receptors for components of the immune system that function as accessory viral receptors by binding infectious complexes of antiviral antibody with virus, this unusual binding step being followed by later replicative stages. ADE is thus conditional upon the presence on host cells of the necessary accessory receptors, but it is also determined by the nature of the infecting virus, by the specificity of the antiviral antibodies, and by the conditions under which the cells, virus, and antibody are brought together.


West Nile Virus Dengue Virus Hemagglutination Inhibition Japanese Encephalitis Virus Dengue Shock Syndrome 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • James S. Porterfield
  • M. Jane Cardosa
    • 1
  1. 1.Sir William Dunn School of PathologyOxfordEngland

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