Simulation of S02 Impacts

  • J. E. Heasley
  • W. K. Lauenroth
  • T. P. Yorks
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 45)


Mathematical modeling is a long-standing tool for the analysis of ecological systems (Lotka, 1925). Before the elaboration of systems engineering, beginning during World War II, applications of mathematical models in ecology were limited to small systems (few equations). The widespread availability of computers in the late 1950s and the 1960s made it possible for ecologists to explore the potential of systems analysis to contribute to the study of ecological systems. This period of experimenting with systems analysis techniques coincided with a period during which many ecologists were switching their interests from the study of populations and communities to ecosystems (Odum, 1957; Margalef, 1963). Systems analysis, computers, and ecological systems were merged into systems ecology in the mid- 1960s (Odum, 1960; Olson, 1963; Patten and Witkamp, 1967; Van Dyne, 1969; Watt, 1966).


Soil Organic Matter Sulfur Dioxide Carbohydrate Storage International Biological Program Soil Nutrient Pool 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allison, F. E. 1965. Soil Organic Matter and Its Role in Crop Production. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  2. Bennett, J. H., and A. C. Hill. 1973. Inhibition of apparent photosynthesis by air pollutants. J. Environ. Qual. 2: 526–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Black, V. S., and M. H. Unsworth. 1980. Stomatal responses to sulfur dioxide and vapor pressure deficit. J. Exp. Bot. 31: 667–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Christiansen, J. H. 1975-1976. Users guide to the Texas episodic model. Data processing section. Texas Air Control Board.Google Scholar
  5. Dodd, J. L., and W. K. Lauenroth. 1981. Effects of low level S02 fumigation on decomposition of western wheatgrass litter in a mixed-grass prairie. Water, Air Soil Pollut. 15: 257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Garrigus, U. S. 1970. The need for sulfur in the diet of ruminants. In Symp. Sulf. Nutri., 1979, D. H. Math and J. E. Oldfield, eds., pp. 126–153. Corvallis: Oregon State Univ.Google Scholar
  7. Guderian, R., and H. Van Haut. 1970. Detection of S02 effects upon plants. Staub. 30: 22 – 35.Google Scholar
  8. Heasley, J. E., W. K. Lauenroth, and J. L. Dodd. 1981. Systems analysis of potential air pollution impacts on grassland ecosystems. In Energy and Ecological Modelling, W. J. Mitsch, R. W. Bosserman, and J. M. Klopatck, eds. pp. 347–359. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  9. Innis, G. S. 1975. The role of total systems models in the grassland biome study. In Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, B. C. Patten, ed. Vol. 3. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  10. Innis, G. S. (ed.). 1978. Grassland Simulation Model. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  11. Innis, G. S., I. Noy-Meir, M. Godren, and G. M. Van Dyne. 1980. Total-systems simulation models. In Grasslands, Systems Analysis and Man, A. I. Breymeyer and G. M. Van Dyne, eds. pp. 759–797. IBP 19 Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  12. Kirchner, T. B., and J. M. Vevea. 1983. PREMOD and MODAID: Software tools for writing simulation models. In Analysis of Ecological Systems: State of the Art in Ecological Modelling, W. K. Lauenroth, G. V. Skogerboe, and M. Flug, eds. pp. 173–183. Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Koong, L. J., and H. L. Lucas. 1973. A Mathematical Model for the Joint Metabolism of Nitrogen and Energy. Institute of Statistics Mimeograph Series No. 882. Raleigh, N.C.: North Carolina State University.Google Scholar
  14. Koziol, M. J., and C. E. Jordan. 1978. Changes in carbohydrate levels in red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) exposed to sulfur dioxide. J. Exp. Bot. 29: 1037–1043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lauenroth, W. K., and J. E. Heasley. 1980. Impact of atmospheric sulfur deposition on grassland ecosystems. In Atmospheric Sulfur Deposition—Environmental Impact and Health Effects, D. S. Shriver, C. R Richmond, and S. E. Lindberg, eds. pp. 417–430. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ann Arbor Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  16. Lotka, A. J. 1925. Elements of Physical Biology. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  17. Ludwick, J. D., D. B. Weber, K. B. Olsen, and S. R. Garcia. 1980. Air quality measurements in the coal-fired power plant environment of Colstrip, Montana. Atmos. Environ. 14: 523–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leetham, J. W., J. L. Dodd, and W. K. Lauenroth. 1983. Effects of low level sulfur dioxide exposure on decomposition of Agropyron smithii litter under laboratory conditions. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 19: 247–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Majernik, O., and T. A. Mansfield. 1971. Effects of S02 pollution on stomatal movements in Vicia faba. Phytopathology 2. 71: 123–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Margalef, R. 1963. On certain unifying principles in ecology. Am. Nat. 97: 357–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McGill, W. B., H. W. Hunt, R. G. Woodmansee, and J. O. Reuss. 1981. PHOENIX, a model of the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in grassland soils. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 33: 49–115.Google Scholar
  22. Odum, H. T. 1957. Trophic structure and productivity of Silver Springs, Florida. Ecol. Monogr. 27: 55–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Odum, H. T. 1960. Ecological potential and analogue circuits for the ecosystem. Am. Sci. 48: 1–8.Google Scholar
  24. Olson, J. S. 1963. Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems. Ecology 44: 322–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Parton, W. J. 1978. Abiotic section of ELM. In Grassland Simulation Model, G. S. Innis, ed. pp. 31–53. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Patten, B. C. (ed.). 1975. Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology. Vol. 3. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. Patten, B. C., and M. Witkamp. 1967. Systems analysis of 134Cesium kinetics in terrestrial microcosms. Ecology 48: 813–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ripley, E. A., and R. E. Redmann. 1976. Grassland. In Vegetation and the Atmosphere, Vol. 2, Case Studies, J. L. Monteith, ed. pp. 349–398. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. Schramel, M. 1975. Influence of sulfur dioxide on stomatal aperatures and diffusive resistance of leaves in various species of cultivated plants under optimum soil moisture and drought conditions. Bull. Acad. Polomaise Sci. Ser. Sci. Biol. 23: 57–66.Google Scholar
  30. Swift, D. M. 1983. A simulation model of energy and nitrogen balance for free-ranging ruminants. J. Wildl. Manage. 47: 620–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tisdale, T. S. 1977. Sulfur in Forage Quality and Ruminant Nutrition. Tech. Bull. 22. Washington, D.C.: The Sulfur Institute.Google Scholar
  32. Unsworth, M. H., P. V. Biscoe, and H. R. Pinckney. 1972. Stomatal responses to sulfur dioxide. Nature (London) 238: 458–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. U.S. Weather Bureau. 1958-1978. U.S. Climatological Survey. Billings, Montana.Google Scholar
  34. Van Dyne, G. M. 1966. Ecosystems, systems ecology and systems ecologists. Oak Ridge, TN: ORNL/3957.Google Scholar
  35. Van Dyne, G. M. (ed.). 1969. The Ecosystem Concept of Natural Resource Management. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Van Dyne, G. M. 1972. Organization and management of an integrated ecological research program with special emphasis on systems analysis, universities and scientific cooperation. In Mathematical Models in Ecology, J. N. R. Jeffers, ed. pp. 111–172. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  37. Van Dyne, G. M. 1978. Foreword: Perspectives on the ELM model and modeling efforts. In G. S. Innis, ed. Grassland Simulation Model. Ecol. Studies 26. New York: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  38. Voroney, R. P., J. A. van Veen, and E. A. Paul. 1981. Organic C dynamics in grassland soils. 2. Model validation and simultion of the long-term effects of cultivation and rainfall erosion. Can. J. Soil Sci. 61: 211–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Watt, K. E. F. 1966. Systems Analysis in Ecology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. White, K. L., A. C. Hill, and J. E. Bennett. 1974. Synergistic inhibition of apparent photosynthesis rate of alfalfa by combinations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Environ. Sci. Tech. 8 (6): 574–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ziegler, I. 1975. The effect of S02 pollution on plant metabolism. Residue Rev. 56: 79–105.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Heasley
  • W. K. Lauenroth
  • T. P. Yorks

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations