Among the axioms upon which the thermodynamics of continuous bodies is based in Lecture 2, the equation of balance of energy (1.7) and the Clausius-Duhem inequality (2.50) play the most important roles. In postulating (1.7) and (2.50) one necessarily has to treat the energy, entropy, and the absolute temperature occurring in these relations as primitive quantities whose meaning is clarified only through their consequences. Although this procedure is completely satisfactory from the logical point of view, the traditional pattern of presenting thermodynamics is different: energy, entropy, and absolute temperature are claimed to be derived from verbal statements of the “laws of thermodynamics”. The arguments given in textbooks do not meet standards of rigor, but the program of founding thermodynamics upon postulates conceptually simpler than (1.7) and (2.50) is appealing. In this appendix we outline an approach to thermodynamics in which the existence of energy, entropy, and absolute temperature is rigorously proved.
KeywordsVerbal Statement Elastic Body Cyclic Process Rational Mechanics Primitive Concept
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