Ultrasonography of Cardiac Valves
The complete noninvasive evaluation of any prosthetic heart valve is complex. It begins with knowledge of the type and position of the valve being studied; includes a good history and physical examination; and, in the laboratory, continues with phonoechocardiographic (for mechanical valves), two-dimensional echocardiographic (for tissue valves), fluoroscopic, and (most recently) Doppler ultrasound study. Baseline recordings of each valve should be obtained postoperatively so that follow-up studies can be interpreted properly (1–3).
KeywordsCage Cardiol Perforation Tral Endocarditis
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