Microorganisms and Soil Aggregate Stability

  • J. M. Lynch
  • Elaine Bragg
Part of the Advances in Soil Science book series (SOIL, volume 2)


A soil aggregate has been defined as “a naturally occurring cluster or group of soil particles in which the forces holding the particles together are much stronger than the forces between adjacent aggregates” (Martin et al., 1955). The terms soil structure and soil aggregation are often used synonymously, but soil aggregates are the basic units of soil structure, rather than the whole. Soil aggregates are formed mainly by physical forces while stabilization is effected by several factors including organic materials, iron and aluminum oxides, and clays. Sequi (1978) considered that the term “aggregation” should be used only when organic binding agents are involved, but this definition seems too narrow to us. The two processes of aggregate formation and stabilization can be concurrent in the soil, and the various stabilizing agents may act in conjunction with each other.


Soil Particle Clay Particle Soil Aggregate Fungal Hypha Aggregate Stability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acton, C.J., D.A. Rennie, and E.A. Paul. 1963. The relationship of polysaccharides to soil aggregation. Can. J. Soil Sci. 43: 201–209.Google Scholar
  2. Adu, J.K., and J.M. Oades. 1978a. Physical factors influencing decomposition of organic materials in soil aggregates. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10: 109–115.Google Scholar
  3. Adu, J.K., and J.M. Oades. 1978b. Utilization of organic materials in soil aggregates by bacteria and fungi. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10: 117–122.Google Scholar
  4. Aldrich, D.G. 1948. The effect of soil acidification on some physical and chemical properties of three irrigated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 13: 191–196.Google Scholar
  5. Allison, F.E. 1968. Soil aggregation some facts and fallacies as seen by a microbiologist. Soil Sci. 106: 136–144.Google Scholar
  6. Aspiras, R.B., O.N. Allen, G. Chesters, and R.F. Harris. 1971 a. Chemical and physical stability of microbially stabilised aggregates. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 35: 283–286.Google Scholar
  7. Aspiras, R.B., O.N. Allen, R.F. Harris, and G. Chesters. 1971b. Aggregate stabilisation by filamentous micro-organisms. Soil Sci. 112: 282–284.Google Scholar
  8. Bailey, D., A.P. Mazurak, and J.R. Rosowski. 1973. Aggregation of soil particles by algae. J. Phycol. 9: 99–101.Google Scholar
  9. Balkwill, D.L., and L.E. Casida. 1979. Attachment to autoclaved soil of bacterial cells from pure cultures of soil isolates. App. Environ. Microbiol. 37: 1031–1037.Google Scholar
  10. Batey, T. 1974. Soil structure: its effect on crop yield. In: Forage on the arable farm. pp. 5–11. Occasional Symposium No. 7, British Grassland Society.Google Scholar
  11. Bobbit, J.M. 1956. Periodate oxidation of carbohydrates. Adv. Carb. Chem. 11:1–43.Google Scholar
  12. Bond, R.D. 1959. Occurrence of microbial filaments in soils. Nature 184: 744–745.Google Scholar
  13. Bond, RD., and J.R. Harris. 1964. The influence of the microflora on physical properties of soils. I. Effects associated with filamentous algae and fungi. Austr. J. Soil Res. 2: 111–122.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, L.R. 1981. World population growth, soil erosion and food security. Science 214: 995–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Burns, R.G. 1977. The soil microenvironment. aggregates, enzymes and pesticides. CNR, Lab. Chimica Terrene Conference 5(1).Google Scholar
  16. Burns, R.G. 1979. Interactions of micro-organisms, their substrates and their products witt soil surfaces. In: D.C. Ellwood, J. Melling, and P. Rutter (eds.), Adhesion of micro-organisms to surfaces. pp. 109–138. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  17. Burns, R.G. 1983. Extracellular enzyme-substrate interactions in soil. In: J.H. Slater, R. Whittenbury, and J.W.T. Wimpenny (eds.), Microbes in their natural environments. pp. 249–298. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  18. Campbell, R. 1983. Microbial ecology. 2d ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, R, and R. Porter. 1982. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy of micro-organisms in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 14: 241–245.Google Scholar
  20. Carr, C.E., and D.J. Greenland. 1972. Preliminary result of an empirical study of the movement of polymers through soil and their effect on dispersion of clay from aggregates. In: M. De Boodt (ed.), Proc. symposium on fundamentals of soil conditioning. pp. 982–992. State University of Ghent, Belgium, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences.Google Scholar
  21. Chapman, S.J., and J.M. Lynch. 1984. A note on the formation of microbial polysaccharide from wheat straw decomposed in the absence of soil. J. Appl. Bacter. 56: 337–342.Google Scholar
  22. Cheshire, M.V. 1977. Origins and stability of soil polysaccharide. J. Soil Sci. 28: 1–10.Google Scholar
  23. Cheshire, M.V. 1979. Nature and origin of carbohydrates in soil. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  24. Cheshire, M.V., and C.M. Mundie. 1981. The distribution of labelled sugars in soil particle size fractions as a means of distinguishing plant and microbial carbohydrate residues. J. Soil Sci. 32: 605–618.Google Scholar
  25. Cheshire, M.V., C.M. Mundie, and H. Shepherd. 1969. Transformation of 14C-glucose and starch in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 1: 117–130.Google Scholar
  26. Cheshire, M.V., G.P. Sparling, and C.M. Mundie. 1983. Effect of periodate treatment of soil on carbohydrate constituents and soil aggregation. J. Soil Sci. 34: 105–112.Google Scholar
  27. Chesters, G., O.J. Attoe, and O.N. Allen. 1957. Soil aggregation in relation to various soil constituents. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 21: 272–277.Google Scholar
  28. Clapp, C.E., and W.W. Emerson. 1965. The effect of periodate oxidation on the strength of soil crumbs. I. Qualitative studies. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 29: 127–130.Google Scholar
  29. Clapp, C.E., R.J. Davis, and S.H. Waugaman. 1962. The effect of rhizobial polysaccharides on aggregate stability. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 26: 466–469.Google Scholar
  30. Clapp, C.E., A.E. Olness, and D.J. Hoffmann. 1968. Adsorption studies of a dextran on montmorillonite. Trans. 9th Int. Congr. Soil Sci. (Adelaide) 1: 627–634.Google Scholar
  31. Clarke, A.L., D.J. Greenland, and J.P. Quirk. 1967. Changes in some physical properties of the surface of an impoverished red-brown earth under pasture. Austr. J. Soil Res. 5: 59–68.Google Scholar
  32. Clough, K.S., and J.C. Sutton. 1978. Direct observation of fungal aggregates in sand dune soil. Can. J. Microbiol. 24: 333–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cooke, G.W., and R.J.B. Williams. 1972. Problems with cultivation and soil structure at Saxmundham. Rothamsted Report, 1971, Part 2. pp. 122–142.Google Scholar
  34. Cooper, A.B., and H.W. Morgan. 1979. Interactions between Escherichia coli and allophane. I. Adsorption. Soil Biol. Biochem. 11: 221–226.Google Scholar
  35. Corpe, W.A. 1960. The extra-cellular polysaccharide of gelatinous strains of Chromobacter violaceum. Can. J. Microbiol. 6: 153–163.Google Scholar
  36. Dabek-Szreniawska, M. 1972. The influence of carbon on the production of slime material by some azotobacter strains. Polish J. Soil Sci. 5: 59–67.Google Scholar
  37. Dabek-Szreniawska, M. 1974. The influence of Arthrobacter sp. on the water stability of soil aggregates. Polish J. Soil Sci. 7: 169–179.Google Scholar
  38. Deuel, H. 1960. Interactions between organic and inorganic soil constituents. Trans. 7th Intl. Congr. Soil Sci. ( Madison, WI ). pp. 38–52.Google Scholar
  39. Dormaar, J.F., and V.J. Pittman. 1980. Decomposition of organic residues as affected by various dryland spring wheat-fallow rotations. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60: 97–106.Google Scholar
  40. Douglas, J.T., and M.J. Goss. 1982. Stability and organic matter content of surface soil aggregates under different methods of cultivation and in grassland. Soil Till. Res. 2: 155–175.Google Scholar
  41. Dudman, W.F. 1977. The role of surface polysaccharides in natural environments. In: I.W. Sutherland (ed.), Surface carbohydrates of theprokaryotic cell. pp. 357–414. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  42. Edwards, A.P., and J.M. Bremner. 1967. Microaggregates in soil. J. Soil Sci. 18: 64–73.Google Scholar
  43. Elliott, L.F., and J.M. Lynch. 1984. The effect of available carbon and nitrogen in straw on soil and ash aggregation and acetic acid production. Plant and Soil. 78: 335–343.Google Scholar
  44. Emerson, W.W. 1954. The determination of the stability of soil crumbs. J. Soil Sci. 5: 233–250.Google Scholar
  45. Emerson, W.W. 1959. The structure of soil crumbs. J. Soil Sci. 10: 235–244.Google Scholar
  46. Faull, J.L., and R Campbell. 1979. Ultrastructure of the interaction between the take-all fungus and antagonistic bacteria. Can. J. Bot. 57: 1800–1808.Google Scholar
  47. Fehrmann, RC., and R.W. Weaver. 1978. Scanning electron microscopy of Rhizobium sp. adhering to fine silt particles. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42: 279–281.Google Scholar
  48. Finch, P., M.H.B. Hayes, and M. Stacey. 1971. The biochemistry of soil polysaccharides. In: A.D. McLaren and J. Skujins (eds.), Soil biochemistry. vol. 2. pp. 257 - 319. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Fletcher, M.M., M.J. Latham, J.M. Lynch, and P.R. Rutter. 1980. The characteristics of interfaces and their role in microbial attachment. In: R.C.W. Berkeley, J.M. Lynch, J. Melling, P.R. Rutter, and B. Vincent (eds.), Microbial adhesion to surfaces. pp. 67–78. Ellis Horwood, Chichester.Google Scholar
  50. Forsyth, W.G.C., and D.M. Webley. 1949. The synthesis of polysaccharides by bacteria isolated from soil. J. Gen. Microbial. 3: 395–399.Google Scholar
  51. Foster, RC. 1978. Ultramicroscopy of some South Australian soils. In: W.W. Emerson, RC. Bond, and A.R. Dexter (eds.), Modifications of soil structure. pp. 103–109. John Wiley and Sons, London.Google Scholar
  52. Foster, RC. 1981a. Polysaccharides in soil fabrics. Science 214: 665–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Foster, RC. 1981b. Localization of organic materials in situ in ultrathin sections of natural soil fabrics using cytochemical techniques. International Working Group on Submicroscopy of Undisturbed Soil Materials. pp. 309–317. Waglningen, Pudoc Press.Google Scholar
  54. Gati, F. 1982. Use of organic materials as soil amendments. In: Organic materials and soil productivity in the Near East. FAO Soils Bull. No. 45. pp. 87–105. FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  55. Gaur, A.C., and R.V.S. Rao. 1975. Note on the isolation of bacterial gums and their influence on soil aggregate stabilisation. Ind. J. Agr. Sci. 45: 86–89.Google Scholar
  56. Gel’tser, F.Y. 1940. The significance of micro-organisms in the formation of humus (Summary). Soils and Fert. (1943)7: 119–12 1.Google Scholar
  57. Geoghegan, M.J. 1950. Aggregate formation in soil. Influence of some microbial metabolic products and other substances on aggregation of soil particles. Trans. Intl. Congr. Soil Sci. (Amsterdam) 1: 198–201.Google Scholar
  58. Geoghegan, M.J., and E.R. Armitage. 1949. Influence of some lipoidal substances on aggregate formation in soils. Nature 163: 29–30.Google Scholar
  59. Geoghegan, M.J., and RC. Brian. 1946. Influence of bacterial polysaccharides on aggregate formation in soils. Nature 158: 837–838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Geoghegan, M.J., and RC. Brian. 1948. Aggregate formation in soil. I. Influence of some bacterial polysaccharides on the binding of soil particles. Biochem. J. 43: 5–13.Google Scholar
  61. Gilmour, C.M., O.N. Allen, and E. Truog. 1948. Soil aggregation as influenced by the growth of mold species, kind of soil, and organic matter. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 13: 292–296.Google Scholar
  62. Giovannini, G., and P. Sequi. 1976. Iron and aluminum as cementing substances of soil aggregates. II. Changes in stability of soil aggregates following extraction of iron and aluminum by acetylacetone in a non-polar solvent. J. Soil Sci. 27: 148–153.Google Scholar
  63. Giovannini, G., S. Lucchesi, and S. Cervelli. 1983. Water-repellent substances and aggregate stability in hydrophobic soil. Soil Sci. 135: 110–113.Google Scholar
  64. Gray, T.R.G. 1967. Stereoscan electron microscopy of soil micro-organisms. Science 155: 1668–1670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Greenland, D.J. 1956a. The adsorption of sugars by montmorillonite. I. X-ray studies. J. Soil Sci. 7: 319–328.Google Scholar
  66. Greenland, D.J. 1956b. The adsorption of sugars by montmorillonite. II. Chemical studies. J. Soil Sci. 7: 329–334.Google Scholar
  67. Greenland, D.J. 1963. Adsorption of polyvinyl alcohols by montmorillonite. J. Colloid Sci. 18: 647–664.Google Scholar
  68. Greenland, D.J. 1965a. Interaction between clays and organic compounds in soils. I. Mechanisms of interaction between clays and defined organic compounds. Soils Fert. 28: 415–426.Google Scholar
  69. Greenland, D.J. 1965b. Interaction between clays and organic compounds in soils. II. Adsorption of soil organic compounds and its effect on soil properties. Soils Fert. 28: 521–532.Google Scholar
  70. Greenland, D.J. 1970. Sorption of organic compounds by clays. In: Sorption and transport processes in soil. Monograph No. 37. pp. 79–91. Society of Chemical Industry, London.Google Scholar
  71. Greenland, D.J. 1972. Interactions between organic polymers and inorganic soil particles. In: M. De Boodt (ed.), Proc. symposium on fundamentals of soil conditioning. pp. 897–914. State University of Ghent, Belgium, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences.Google Scholar
  72. Greenland, D.J., G.R. Lindstrom, and J.P. Quirk. 1961. Role of polysaccharides in stabilisation of natural soil aggregates. Nature 191: 1283–1284.Google Scholar
  73. Greenland, D.J., G.R. Lindstrom, and J.P. Quirk. 1962. Organic materials which stabilise natural soil aggregates. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 26: 366–371.Google Scholar
  74. Griffiths, E., and R.G. Burns. 1972. Interaction between phenolic substances and microbial polysaccharides in soil aggregation. Plant and Soil 36: 599–612.Google Scholar
  75. Griffiths, E., and D. Jones. 1965. Microbiological aspects of soil structure. I. Relationships between organic amendments, microbial colonization and changes in aggregate stability. Plant and Soil 23: 17–33.Google Scholar
  76. Guidi, G., M. Pagliai, G. Petruzzelli, and R. Aringhieri. 1978. Changes in some physical properties of clay soils induced by dextrans. Z. Pf anzen. Bodenk. 141: 367–377.Google Scholar
  77. Hamblin, A.P. 1980. Changes in aggregate stability and associated organic matter properties after direct drilling and ploughing on some Australian soils. Austr. J. Soil Res. 18: 27–36.Google Scholar
  78. Hansen, L. 1982. Problems of soil structure in monoculture of spring barley. In: D. Boels, D.B. Davies, and A.E. Johnston (eds.), Soil degradation pp. 87–94. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  79. Harris, R.F., G. Chesters, and O.N. Allen. 1966a. Dynamics of soil aggregation. Adv. Agron. 18: 107–169.Google Scholar
  80. Harris, R.F., G. Chesters, and O.N. Allen. 1966b. Soil aggregate stabilisation by the indigenous microflora as affected by temperature. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 30: 205–210.Google Scholar
  81. Harris, RF., O.N. Allen, G. Chesters, and O.J. Attoe. 1963. Evaluation of microbial activity in soil aggregate stabilisation and degradation by the use of artificial aggregates. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 27: 542–545.Google Scholar
  82. Harris, RF., G. Chesters, O.N. Allen, and O.J. Attoe. 1964. Mechanisms involved in soil aggregate stabilisation by fungi and bacteria. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 28: 529–532.Google Scholar
  83. Hayes, M.H.B. 1980. Role of natural and synthetic polymers in stabilising soil aggregates. In: R.C.W. Berkeley, J.M. Lynch, J. Melling, P.R. Rutter, and B. Vincent (eds.), Microbial adhesion to surfaces. pp. 262–296. Ellis Horwood, Chichester.Google Scholar
  84. Johnston, A.E. 1982. The effects of farming systems on the amount of soil organic matter and its effect on yield at Rothamsted and Woburn. In: D. Boels, D.B. Davies, and A.E. Johnston (eds.), Soil degradation. pp. 187–202. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  85. Keefer, R.F., and J.F. Mortenson. 1963. Biosynthesis of soil polysaccharides. I. Glucose and alfalfa tissue substrates. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 27: 156–160.Google Scholar
  86. Kilbertus, G. 1980. Etude des microhabitats contenus dans les agregats du sol: leur relation avec la biomass bacterienne et la taille des procaryotes presents. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol 17: 543–558.Google Scholar
  87. Kilbertus, G., J. Proth, and F. Magenot. 1977. On the distribution and survival of soil micro-organisms: electron miscroscope study. Bull. Acad. Soc. Lorraines Sci. (Nancy) 16:93–104. Abtract in Microbiol. Abs. 14B (1979) No. 3449.Google Scholar
  88. Lahav, N. 1962. Adsorption of sodium bentonite particles on Bacillus subtilis. Plant and Soil 17: 191–208.Google Scholar
  89. Lasik, Y.A., S.A. Gordiyenko, and L. Kalakhova. 1978. Decomposition of bacterial polysaccharides in soil. Soviet Soil Sci. 10: 151–15 3.Google Scholar
  90. Low, A.J. 1955. Improvements in the structural state of soils under leys. J. Soil Sci. 6: 179–199.Google Scholar
  91. Low, A.J., and P.R. Stuart. 1974. Microstructural differences between arable and old grassland soils as shown in the scanning electron microscope. J. Soil Sci. 25: 135–143.Google Scholar
  92. Lutz, J.F. 1936. The relation of free iron oxide in the soil to aggregation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1: 43–45.Google Scholar
  93. Lynch, D.L., L.M. Wright, and L.J. Cotnoir. 1956. The adsorption of carbohydrates and related compounds on clay minerals. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 20: 6–9.Google Scholar
  94. Lynch, J.M. 1981 a. Promotion and inhibition of soil aggregate stabilisation by micro-organisms. J. Gen. Microbiol. 126: 371–375.Google Scholar
  95. Lynch, J.M. 1981b. Interactions between bacteria and plants in the root environment. In: M.E. Rhodes-Roberts, and F.A. Skinner (eds.), Bacteria and plants. pp. 1–23. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  96. Lynch, J.M. 1983. Soil biotechnology: microbiologicalfactors in crop productivity. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  97. Lynch, J.M., and L.F. Elliott. 1983. Aggregate stabilisation of volcanic ash and soil during microbial degradation of straw. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45: 1398–1401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lynch, J.M., and S.J. Pryn. 1977. Interaction between a soil fungus and barley seed. J. Gen. Microbiol. 103: 193–196.Google Scholar
  99. Marshall, K.C. 1969a. Studies by microelectrophoretic and microscopic techniques of the sorption of illite and montmorillonite to rhizobia. J. Gen. Microbiol. 56: 301–306.Google Scholar
  100. Marshall, K.C. 1969b. Orientation of clay particles sorbed on bacteria possessing different ionogenic surfaces. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 193: 472–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Marshall, K.C. 1971. Sorptive interactions between soil particles and microorganisms. In: A.D. McLaren and J. Skujins (eds.), Soil biochemistry. Vol. 2. pp. 409 - 445. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  102. Marshall, K.C. 1980. Adsorption of micro-organisms to soils and sediments. In: G. Bitton and K.C. Marshall (eds.), Adsorption of micro-organisms to surfaces. pp. 317–329. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  103. Martin, J.K. 1975. 14C labelled material leached from the rhizosphere of plants supplied continuously with 14CO2. Soil Biol. Biochem. 7: 395–399.Google Scholar
  104. Martin, J.P. 1942. The effect of composts and compost materials upon the aggregation of the silt and clay particles of Collington sandy loam. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 7: 218–222.Google Scholar
  105. Martin, J.P. 1945. Micro-organisms and soil aggregation. I. Origin and nature of some of the aggregating substances. Soil Sci. 59: 163–174.Google Scholar
  106. Martin, J.P. 1946. Micro-organisms and soil aggregation. II. Influence of bacterial polysaccharides on soil structure. Soil Sci. 61: 157–166.Google Scholar
  107. Martin, J.P. 1971. Decomposition and binding action of polysaccharides in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 3: 33–41.Google Scholar
  108. Martin, J.P., and D.G. Aldrich. 1955. Influence of soil exchangeable cation ratios on the aggregating effects of natural and synthetic soil conditioners. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 19: 50–54.Google Scholar
  109. Martin, J.P., and B.A. Craggs. 1946. Influence of temperature and moisture on the soil aggregating effect of organic residues. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 38: 332–339.Google Scholar
  110. Martin, J.P., and K. Haider. 1971. Microbial activity in relation to soil humus formation. Soil Sci. 111: 54–63.Google Scholar
  111. Martin, J.P., and S.J. Richards. 1963. Decomposition and binding action of a polysaccharide from Chromobacterium violaceum in soil. J. Bacteriol. 85: 1288–1294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Martin, J.P., and S.A. Waksman. 1940. Influence of micro-organisms on soil aggregation and erosion. I. Soil Sci. 50: 29–47.Google Scholar
  113. Martin, J.P., and S.A. Waksman. 1941. Influence of micro-organisms on soil aggregation and erosion. II. Soil Sci. 52: 381–394.Google Scholar
  114. Martin, J.P., J.O. Ervin, and S.J. Richards. 1972. Decomposition and binding action in soil of some mannose-containing microbial polysaccharides and their Fe, Al, Zn and Cn complexes. Soil Sci. 113: 322–327.Google Scholar
  115. Martin, J.P., J.O. Ervin, and RA. Shepherd. 1959. Decomposition and aggregating effect of fungus cell material in soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 23: 217–220.Google Scholar
  116. Martin, J.P., J.O. Ervin, and R.A. Shepherd. 1965. Decomposition and binding action of polysaccharides from Azotobacter indicus (Beijerinckia) and other bacteria in soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 29: 397–400.Google Scholar
  117. Martin, J.P., K. Haider, W.J. Farmer, and E. Fustec-Mathon. 1974. Decomposition and distribution of residual activity of some 14C-microbial polysaccharides and cells, glucose, cellulose and wheat straw in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 6: 221–230.Google Scholar
  118. Martin, J.P., W.P. Martin, J.B. Page, W.A. Raney, and J.G. De Ment. 1955. Soil aggregation. Adv. Agron. 7: 1–37.Google Scholar
  119. McCalla, T.M. 1945. Influence of micro-organisms and some organic substances on soil structure. Soil Sci. 59: 287–297.Google Scholar
  120. McCalla, T.M. 1946. Influence of some microbial groups on stabilizing soil structure against falling water drops. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 11: 260–263.Google Scholar
  121. McCalla, T.M., F.A. Haskins, and E.F. Frolik. 1957. Influence of various factors on aggregation of Peorian loess by micro-organisms. Soil Sci. 84: 155–161.Google Scholar
  122. McHenry, J.R., and M.B. Russell. 1944. Microbial activity and aggregation of mixtures of bentonite and sand. Soil Sci. 57: 351–357.Google Scholar
  123. Mehta, N.C., H. Streuli, M. Muller, and H. Deuel. 1960. Role of polysaccharides in soil aggregation. J. Sci. Food Agr. 11: 40–47.Google Scholar
  124. Metting, B., and W. R. Rayburn. 1983. The influence of a microalgal conditioner on selected Washington soils: an empirical study. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47: 682–685.Google Scholar
  125. Meyers, H.E., and T.M. McCalla. 1941. Changes in soil aggregation in relation to bacterial numbers, hydrogen ion concentration and length of time soil was kept moist. Soil Sci. 51: 189–200.Google Scholar
  126. Newman, RH., K.R. Tate, P.F. Barron, and M.A. Wilson. 1980. Towards a direct, non-destructive method of characterising soil humic substances using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. J. Soil Sci. 31: 623–631.Google Scholar
  127. Nikitin, D.I. 1964. Use of electron microscopy in the study of soil suspensions and cultures of micro-organisms. Soviet Soil Sci. 7: 636–641.Google Scholar
  128. Oades, J.M. 1978. Mucilages at the root surface. J. Soil Sci. 29: 1–16.Google Scholar
  129. Olness, A.E., and C.E. Clapp. 1975. Influence of polysaccharide structure on dextran adsorption by montmorillionite. Soil Biol. Biochem. 7: 113–118.Google Scholar
  130. Olness, A., and C.E. Clapp. 1976. Influence of polymer structure on stability of dextrans complexed with montmorillonite. In: M. DeBoodt and D. Gabriels (eds.), Third Intl. symposium on soil conditioning. pp. 241–25 2. State University of Ghent, Belgium, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences.Google Scholar
  131. Page, E. R. 1983. Fresh interest in soil conditioners. Span 26: 10–11.Google Scholar
  132. Parfitt, RL., and D.J. Greenland. 1970. Adsorption of polysaccharides by montmorillonite. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 34: 862–866.Google Scholar
  133. Peele, T.C. 1940. Microbial activity in relation to soil aggregation. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 32: 204–212.Google Scholar
  134. Rathore, T.R, B.P. Ghildyal, and RS. Sachan. 1982. Germination and emergence of soybean under crusted soil conditions. II. Seed environment and varietal differences. Plant and Soil 65: 73–77.Google Scholar
  135. Reid, J.B., and M.J. Goss. 1980. Changes in the aggregate stability of a sandy loam soil effected by growing roots of a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). J. Sci. Food Agr. 31: 325–328.Google Scholar
  136. Reid, J.M., and M.J. Goss. 1981. Effect of living roots of different plant species on the aggregate stability of two arable soils. J. Soil Sci. 32: 522–542.Google Scholar
  137. Rennie, D.A., E. Truog, and O.N. Allen. 1954. Soil aggregation as influenced by microbial gums, level of fertility and kind of crop. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 18: 399–403.Google Scholar
  138. Robinson, D.O., and J.B. Page. 1950. Soil aggregate stability. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 15: 25–29.Google Scholar
  139. Robinson, G.S., and W. A. Jacques. 1958. Root development in some common New Zealand pasture plants. X. Effect of pure sowings of some grasses and clovers on the structure of a Tokomaru silt loam. N. Z. J. Agr. Res. 1: 999–216.Google Scholar
  140. Santoro, T., and G. Stotzky. 1967. Influence of cations on flocculation of clay minerals by microbial metabolites as determined by the electrical sensing zone particle analyzer. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 31: 761–765.Google Scholar
  141. Santoro, T., and G. Stotzky. 1968. Sorption between micro-organisms and clay minerals as determined by the electrical sensing zone particle analyzer. Can. J. Microbiol. 14: 299–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sequi, P. 1978. Soil structure—an outlook. Agrochimica 22: 403–425.Google Scholar
  143. Skinner, F.A. 1979. Rothamsted studies of soil structure. VII. The effects of incubation on soil aggregate stability. J. Soil Sci. 30: 473–481.Google Scholar
  144. Sparling, G.P., M.V. Cheshire, C.M. Mundie, and S. Murayama. 1981. The transformation of 14C-labelled glucose in sterilised soil inoculated with selected micro-organisms. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol 18: 447–457.Google Scholar
  145. Stotzky, G., and V. Bystricky. 1969. Electron microscopic observations of surface interactions between clay minerals and micro-organisms. Bacteriol. Proc. A93.Google Scholar
  146. Sutherland, I.W. 1977. Bacterial exopolysaccharides—their nature and production. In: I.W. Sutherland (ed.), Surface carbohydrates of the prokaryotic cell. pp. 27–96. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  147. Sutton, J.C., and Sheppard, B.R. 1976. Aggregation of sand-dune soil by endomycorrhizal fungi. Can. J. Bot. 54: 326–333.Google Scholar
  148. Swaby, R.J. 1949. The relationship between micro-organisms and soil aggregation. J. Gen. Microbiol. 3: 236–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Swift, R.S., and K. Cheney. 1979. The role of soil organic colloids in the formation and stabilisation of soil aggregates. J. Sci. Food Agr. 30: 329–330.Google Scholar
  150. Swincer, G.D., J.M. Oades, and D.J. Greenland. 1969. The extraction, characterisation and significance of soil polysaccharide. Adv. Agron. 21: 195–235.Google Scholar
  151. Theng, B.K.G. 1982. Clay—polymer interactions: summary and perspectives. Clays Clay Min. 30: 1–10.Google Scholar
  152. Tisdall, J.M., and J.M. Oades. 1979. Stabilisation of soil aggregates by the root systems of ryegrass. Austr. J. Soil Res. 17: 429–441.Google Scholar
  153. Tisdall, J.M., and J.M. Oades. 1980. The effect of crop rotation on aggregation in a red-brown earth. Austr. J. Soil Res. 18: 423–434.Google Scholar
  154. Tisdall, J.M., and J.M. Oades. 1982. Organic matter and water stable aggregates in soils. J. Soil Sci. 33: 141–164.Google Scholar
  155. Watson, J.H., and B.J. Stojanovic. 1965. Synthesis and bonding of soil aggregates as affected by microflora and its metabolic products. Soil Sci. 100: 57–62.Google Scholar
  156. Webley, D.M., R.B. Duff, J.S.D. Bacon, and V.C. Farmer. 1965. A study of the polysaccharide producing organisms occurring in the root region of certain pasture grasses. J. Soil Sci. 16: 149–157.Google Scholar
  157. Went, F.W., and N. Stark. 1968. The biological and mechanical role of soil fungi. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 60: 497–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Yoder, R.E. 1936. A direct method of aggregate analysis of soils and a study of the physical nature of erosion losses. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 28: 337–351.Google Scholar
  159. Zvyagintsev, D.G., A.F. Pertsovskaya, V.I. Duda, and D.I. Nikitin. 1969. Electron microscopic study of the adsorption of micro-organisms on soil and minerals. Microbiology 38: 937–942.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Lynch
    • 1
  • Elaine Bragg
    • 2
  1. 1.Glasshouse Crop Research InstituteLittlehampton, West SussexEngland
  2. 2.AFRC Letcombe LaboratoryWantage, OxonEngland

Personalised recommendations