Estuarial Sediment Bed Model

  • Earl J. Hayter
Part of the Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies book series (COASTAL, volume 14)

Abstract

A layered cohesive sediment bed model used to simulate the formation, erosion and consolidation of the type of beds typically found in estuaries is described. The model is divided into three bed sections: unconsolidated stationary suspensions, partially consolidated beds, and settled (fully consolidated) beds. The model is further divided into a finite number of strata in order to account for repeated periods of deposition, as typically occur in estuaries due to the oscillatory tidal flow. The erosion algorithm included in the model simulates the reentrainment of stationary suspensions and the resuspension of partially consolidated and settled bed layers. The empirical consolidation algorithm ac-counts for the self-weight consolidation of stationary suspensions and partially consolidated beds by increasing the bed density and bed shear strength and de-creasing the bed thickness with time. The degree of consolidation of a particular stratum is accounted for by using a separate consolidation time for each stratum. Results from simulations using the bed model are presented in the form of bed structure-time plots.

Keywords

Clay Permeability Quartz Anisotropy Attenuation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ariathurai, R., “A Finite Element Model for Sediment Transport in Estuaries,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis, California, 1974.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ariathurai, R., and Arulanandan, K., “Erosion Rates of Cohesive Soils,” Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 104, No. HY2, February, 1978, pp. 279–283.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bain, A. J., “Erosion of Cohesive Muds,” M.S. Thesis, University of Manchester, United Kingdom, 1981.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Been, K., and Sills, G. C., “Self-weight Consolidation of Soft Soils: An Experimental and Theoretical Study,” Geotechnique, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1981, pp. 519–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cargill, K. W., “Consolidation of Soft Layers of Finite Strain Analysis,” MPGL-82-3, Geotechnic Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1982.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Croce, P., “Evaluation of Consolidation Theories by Centrifugal Model Tests,” M.S. Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 1982.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dixit, J. G., “Resuspension Potential of Deposited Kaolinite Beds,” M.S. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 1982.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Einsele, G., Overbeck, R., Schwarz, H. U., and Unsold, G., “Mass Physical Properties, Sliding and Erodibility of Experimentally Deposited and Differently Consolidated Clayey Muds, ” Sedimentology, Vol. 21, 1974, pp. 339–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gibson, R. E., England, G. L., and Hussey, M. J. L., “The Theory of One-Dimensional Consolidation of Saturated Clays, I. Finite Nonlinear Consolidation of Thin Homogeneous Layers,” Geotechnique, Vol 17, 1967, pp. 261–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gibson, R. E., Schiffman, R. L., and Cargill, K. W., “The Theory of One-Dimensional Consolidation of Saturated Clays, II. Finite Nonlinear Consolidation of Thick Homogeneous Layers, ” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 18, 1981, pp. 280–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grimshaw, R. W., The Chemistry and Physics of Clays, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1971.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hanzawa, H., and Kishida, T., “Fundamental Considerations of Undrained Strength Characteristics of Alluvial Marine Clays,” Soils and Foundations, Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 1, March, 1981, pp. 39–50.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hayter, E. J., “Prediction of Cohesive Sediment Transport in Estuarial Waters,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 1983.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hayter, E.J., and Mehta, A. J., “Modeling of Estuarial Fine Sediment Transport for Tracking Pollutant Movement,” UFL/CQEL-82/009, Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, December, 1982.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Karcz, I., and Shanmugam, G., “Decrease in Scour Rate of Fresh Deposited Muds,” Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 100, No. HY11, November, 1974, pp. 1735–1738.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kirby, R., and Parker, W.R., “The Physical Characteristics and Environmental Significance of Fine Sediment Suspensions in Estuaries,” in Estuaries, Geophysics and the Environment, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1977, pp. 110–120.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kirby, R., and Parker, W. R., “Distribution and Behavior of Fine Sediment in the Severn Estuary and Inner Bristol Channel, U.K.,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 40, Supplement Number 1, 1983, pp. 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Krone, R. B., “A Study of Rheological Properties of Estuarial Sediments,” Technical Bulletin No. 7, Committee of Tidal Hydraulics, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Mississippi, September, 1963.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee, K., and Sills, G.C., “A Moving Boundary Approach to Large Strain Consolidation of a Thin Soil Layer,” Proc. 3rd International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, W. Wittke, Editor, Rotterdam, 1979, pp. 163–173.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lee, K., and Sills, G. C., “The Consolidation of a Soil Stratum, Including Self-weight Effects and Large Strains, ” Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Vol. 5, 1981, pp. 105–128.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lerman, A., and Weiler, R. R., “Diffusion and Accumulation of Chloride and Sodium in Lake Ontario Sediment,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 10, 1970, pp. 150–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li, Y.H., and Gregory, S., “Diffusion of Ions in Sea Water and Deep-Sea Sediments, ” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 38, 1974, pp. 703–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Manheim, F.T., “The Diffusion of Ions in Unconsolidated Sediments,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 9, 1970, pp. 307–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mehta, A. J., “Review of Erosion Function for Cohesive Sediment Beds,” Proc. First Indian Conference on Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India, Vol. 1, February, 1981, pp. 122–130.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mehta, A.J., Parchure, T.M., Dixit, J.G., and Ariathurai, R., “Resuspension Potential of Deposited Cohesive Sediment Beds,” In Estuarine Comparison, V.S. Kennedy, Editor, Academic Press, New York, 1982, pp. 591–609.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mitchell, J.K., “Fundamental Aspects of Thixotropy in Soils,” Transactions of the ASCE, Vol. 126, Pt. 1, 1961, pp. 1586–1620.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mitchell, J.K., Singh, A., and Campanella, R.G., “Bonding Effective Stresses and Strength of Soils,” Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, Vol. 95, No. SM5, September, 1969, pp. 1219–1246.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Owen, M. W., “A Detailed Study of the Settling Velocities of an Estuary Mud,” Report No. INT 78, Hydraulics Research Station, Wallingford, United Kingdom, September, 1970.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Owen, M.W., “Properties of a Consolidating Mud,” Report No. INT 83, Hydraulics Research Station, Wallingford, United Kingdom, December, 1970.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Owen, M. W., “Erosion of Avonmouth Mud,” Report No. INT 150, Hydraulics Research Station, Wallingford, United Kingdom, September, 1975.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Paaswell, R.E., “Causes and Mechanisms of Cohesive Soil Erosion: The State of the Art,” Special Report 135, Highway Research Board, Washington, DC, 1973, pp. 52–74.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Parchure, T. M., “Effect of Bed Shear Stress on the Erosional Characteristics of Kaolinite,” M.S. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, December, 1980.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Parker, W. R., and Kirby, R., “Fine Sediment Studies Relevant to Dredging Practice and Control,” Proc. Second International Symposium on Dredging Technology, BHRA, Paper B2, Texas A&M University, College Station, November, 1977.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Parker, W. R., and Kirby, R., “Time Dependent Properties of Cohesive Sediment Relevant to Sedimentation Management-European Experience,” In Estuarine Comparison, V.S. Kennedy, Editor, Academic Press, New York, 1982.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Parker, W. R., and Lee, K., “The Behavior of Fine Sediment Relevant to the Dispersal of Pollutants,” ICES Workshop on Sediment and Pollutant Interchange in Shallow Seas, Texel, United Kingdom, September, 1979.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Quirk, J.P., and Schofield, R.K., “The Effect of Electrolyte Concentration on Soil Permeability,” Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1955.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Richards, A. F., Hirst, T.J., and Parks, J. M., “Bulk Density-Water Content Relationship in Marine Silts and Clays,” Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 44, No. 4, 1974, pp. 1004–1009.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sargunam, A., Riley, P., Arulanandan, K. and Krone, R.B., “Effect of Physico-chemical Factors on the Erosion of Cohesive Soils,” Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 99, No. HY3, March 1973, pp. 553–558.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schiffman, R. L., and Cargill, R. K. W., “Finite Strain of Sedimenting Clay Deposits,” Proc. Tenth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Stockholm, Vol. 1, 1981, pp. 239–242.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Spangler, M.G., and Handy, R.L., Soil Engineering, Harper and Row, New York, 1982.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Taylor, D. W., Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1948.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Terzaghi, K., “Die Theorie der Hydrodynamischen Spanungserscheinungen und ihr Erdbautechnisches Anwendungsgebeit,” Proc. First International Congress of Applied Mechanics, Delft, The Netherlands, No. 1, 1924, pp. 228–294.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Thorn, M. F. C., “Physical Processes of Siltation in Tidal Channels,” Proc. Hydraulic Modelling Applied to Maritime Engineering Problems, ICE, London, 1981, pp. 47–55.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Thorn, M.F.C., and Parsons, J.G., “Properties of Grangemouth Mud,” Report No. EX781, Hydraulics Research Station, Wallingford, United Kingdom, July, 1977.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Thorn, M. F. C., and Parsons, J. G., “Erosion of Cohesive Sediments in Estuaries: An Engineering Guide,” Proc. Third International Symposium on Dredging Technology, Paper Fl, March, 1980.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Whitmarsh, R. B., “Precise Sediment Density by Gamma-Ray Attenuation Alone,” Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol. 41, 1971, pp. 882–883.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Znidarcic, D., “Laboratory Determination of Consolidation Properties for Cohesive Soil,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 1982Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Earl J. Hayter
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringClemson UniversityClemsonUSA

Personalised recommendations