Prophylactic Antibiotics

  • Peter N. R. Heseltine
  • John M. Leedom


Antibiotics consume approximately 35% of the total pharmacy budget in most hospitals with betalactam antibiotics comprising almost 60% of all hospital uses (1). Expenditures on parenteral antibiotics have increased from $240 million in 1975 to over $1 billion in 1984. Antibiotic therapy and the associated costs of administration can add over $250 a day to a patient’s bill. Using antibiotics wisely has always been good practice; using them prudently means limited health care dollars can be spent on more pressing needs.


Urinary Tract Infection Antibiotic Prophylaxis Acute Otitis Medium Prophylactic Antibiotic Rheumatic Fever 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kunin CM: The responsibility of the infectious disease community for the optimal use of antimicrobial agents. J Infect Dis 151: 388–398, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heseltine PNR, Appleman MD, Leedon JM: Epidemiology and susceptibility of resistant Bacteroides fragilis group organisms to new beta-lactam antibiotics. Rev Infect Dis 6 (Suppl l): S254–259, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sanders CC, Sanders WE Jr: Microbial resistance to newer generation betalactam antibiotics: clinical and laboratory implications. J Infect Dis 151: 399–406, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hooper CA, Haney BB, Stone HH: Gastrointestinal bleeding due to vitamin K deficiency in patients on parenteral cefamandole. Lancet 1 (8158): 39–40, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weitekamp MR, Aber RC: Prolonged bleeding times and bleeding diathesis associated with moxalactam administration. JAMA 249: 69–71, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pierce PF Jr, Wilson R, Silva J Jr, Garagusi VF, Rifkin GD, Fekerty R: Antibiotic-associated pseu-domembranous colitis: an epidemiologic investiga-tion of a cluster of cases. J Infect Dis 145: 269–274, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Centers for Disease Control: National Nosocomial Infections Study Report, annual summary 1979 US Public Health Service, 1982.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Caplan ES: Infection surveillance and control in the severely traumatized patient. In Dixon RE (ed): Nosocomial infections. Yorke Medical Books, 1981.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stein PD, Harken DE, Dexter L: The nature and prevention of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Am Heart J 71: 393, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mills DH, Boyden JS, Rubsamen DS, Engel HL: Report on the Medical Insurance Feasibility Study. California Medical Association. Sutter Publications Inc, San Francisco, 1977.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Meleney FL: A statistical study of the prevention of infection in soft parts, compound fractures, and burns with special reference to the sulfonamides. Surg Gynecol Obstet 80: 263, 1945.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Prince CL: The prevention of urinary tract infection following transurethral prostatic resection by combined use of sulfadiazine and penicillin. J Urol 56: 121, 1946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Miles AA, Miles EM, Burke J: The value and duration of defense reactions of the skin to primary lodgement of bacteria. Br J Exp Pathol 38: 79, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    National Research Council Division of Medical Sciences, Ad Hoc Committee of the Committee Peter N.R. Heseltine and John M. Leedom of Trauma: Postoperative wound infections: the influence of ultra-violet irradiation of the operating room and various other factors. Ann Surg 160 (Suppl 2): 1, 1964.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ehrenkrantz NJ: Surgical wound infections occurrence in clean operations. Am J Med 70: 909–914, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haley RW, Culver DH, Emori TG, Hooton TM, White JW: Progress report on the evaluation of the efficacy of infection surveillance and control programs. Am J Med 70: 971–975, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Armoury RA, Bowman FO Jr, Malm JR: Endocarditis associated with intracardiac prostheses. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 51: 36, 1966.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nelson P: Deep infections following total hip arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 59A: 1942, 1977.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schlesselman JJ: Matching. In Case-control studies: design, conduct, analysis. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 105–123, 1982.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fekety FR Jr, ClufF LE, Sabiston DC Jr, et al.: A study of antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 57: 757, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kini PM, Fernandez J, Causay RS, et al.: Double- blind comparison of cefazolin and cephalothin in open heart surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 76: 506, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Archer GL, Tenenbaum MJ: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 17: 269, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Conte JE Jr, Cohen SN, Roe BB, et al.: Antibiotic prophylaxis and cardiac surgery: a prospective double-blind comparison of single-dose versus mul-tiple dose regimens. Ann Intern Med 76: 943, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hirschman JV, Inui TS: Antimicrobial prophylaxis: a critique of recent trials. Rev Infect Dis 2: 1–23, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Piatt R, Munoz A, Stella J, Van Devanter S, Koster JK Jr: Antiobiotic prophylaxis for cardiovascular surgery. Efficacy with coronary artery bypass. An Intern Med 101: 770–774, 1984.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ramsdale DR, Charles RG, Rowlands DB, et al.: Antibiotic prophylaxis for pacemaker implantation: a prospective randomized trial. PACE 7: 844–849, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kaiser AB, Clayson KR, Mulherin JL Jr, et al.: Antibiotic prophylaxis in vascular surgery. Ann Surg 188: 283, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pitt HA, Postier RG, MacGowan WAL, et al.: Prophylactic antibiotics in vascular surgery: topical, systemic or both? Ann Surg 192: 356–364, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hasselgren PO, Ivarsson L, Risberg B, Seeman T: Effects of prophylactic antibiotics in vascular surgery. A prospective randomized double-blind study. Ann Surg 200: 86 - 92, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Savitz MH, Malis LI, Meyers BR: Prophylactic antibiotics in neurosurgery. Surg Neurol 2: 95, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wright RL, Burke JF: Effect of ultraviolet radiation on postoperative sepsis. J Neurosurg 31: 533, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ericson C, Lidgren L, Lindberg L: Cloxacillin in the prophylaxis of postoperative infections of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg 55-A.-808, 1973.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Carlsson AS, Lidgren L, Lindberg L: Prophylactic antibiotics against early and late deep infection after total hip replacements. Acta Orthoped Scand 48: 405, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hill C, Mazas F, Flamant R, et al.: Prophylactic cefazolin versus placebo in total hip replacement. Lancet 1: 795, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Marks KE, Nelson CL, Lautenschlager EP: Anti- biotic-impregnated acrylic bone cement. J Bone Joint Surg 58-A-. 358, 1976.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cruse PJE: Incidence of wound infections on the surgical services. Surg Clin North Am 55: 1269, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lewis RT: Discriminate use of antibiotic prophylaxis in gastro-duodenal surgery. Am J Surg 138: 640, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    Lewis RT: Discriminate use of antibiotic prophylaxis in gastro-duodenal surgery. Am J Surg 138: 640, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Becker GD, Parell GJ: Cefazolin prophylaxis in head and neck cancer surgery. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 88 (1): 183, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dor P, Klastersky J: Prophylactic antibiotics in oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal surgery for cancer. A double-blind study. Laryngoscope 83: 1992, 1973.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Becker GD, Parell GJ, Busch DF, et al.: Anaerobic and aerobic bacteriology in head and neck cancer surgery. Arch Otolaryngol 104: 591, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Becker GD: Chemoprophylaxis for surgery of the head and neck. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 90: 8, 1981.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Strong MS: Wound infection in otolaryngologic surgery and the inexpediency of antibiotic prophylaxis. Laryngoscope 73: 165, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Johnson JT, Myers EN, Thearle PB, Sigler BA, Schramm VL Jr: Antimicrobial prophylaxis for contaminated head and neck surgery. Laryngoscope 94: 46 – 51, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kvale PA, Ranga V, Kopacz M, et al.: Pulmonary resection. S Med J 70 (1): S64, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chetlin SH, Elliot DW. Biliary bacteremia. Arch Surg 102: 303, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ledger WJ, Boice C, Yonekura L, Di Zerga G: Vaginal hysterectomy. South Med J 70: 40 - 43, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ohm MJ, Galask RP: The effect of antibiotic pro-phylaxis on patients undergoing vaginal operations. II. Alterations of microbial flora. Am J Obstet Gynecol 123: 597–604, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kellum JM Jr, Gargano S, Gorbach SL, et al.: Antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk biliary operation: multicenter trial of single preoperative ceftriaxone versus multidose cefazolin. Am J Surg 148: 15–18, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Apuzzio JJ, Ganesh VV, Pelosi MA, Frisoli G: The effect of prophylactic antibiotics on risk factors for endometritis in adolescent patients undergoing caesarian section. J Adolesc Health Care 5: 163–166, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gibbs RS, St Clair PJ, Castillo MS et al: Bacterio- logic effects of antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk cesarian section. Obstet Gynecol 57: 277, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Swartz WH, Grolle K: The use of prophylactic antibiotics in caesarian section: a review of the literature. J Reprod Med 26: 595, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stiver HG, Forward KR, Livingstone RA, et al.: Multicenter comparison of cefoxitin versus cefazolin for prevention of infectious morbidity after nonelective caesarian section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 145: 158, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shapiro M, Munoz A, Tager IB, Schoenbaum SC, Polk BF: Risk factors for infection at the operative site after abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. N Engl J Med 307: 1661–1666, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Meade PB: Prophylactic antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. Semin Perinatol 1: 101, 1977.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lett WJ, Ansbacher R, Davidson BL, et al.: Prophylactic antibiotics for women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy. J Reprod Med 19: 51, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Duff P, Gibbs RS, Jorgensen JH, et al.: The pharmacokinetics of prophylactic antibiotics administered by intraoperative irrigation at the time of caesarian section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 60: 409, 1982.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sevin BU, Ramos R, Lichtiger M, Girtanner RE, Avarette HE: Antibiotic prevention of infections complicating radical abdominal hysterectomy. Obstet Gynecol 64: 539–545, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hemsell DL, Menon MO, Friedman AJ: Ceftriaxone or cefazolin prophylaxis for the prevention of infection after vaginal hysterectomy. Am J Surg 148: 22–26, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gaudin HJ, Zide HA, Thompson GJ: Use of sulfanilamide after transurethral prostatectomy. JAMA 110: 1887, 1938.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Morris MJ, Golovsky D, Guinness MDG, et al.: The value of prophylactic antibiotics in transurethral prostatic resection: a controlled trial, with observations on the origin of postoperative infection. Br J Urol 48: 479, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Patzakis MJ, Harvey JP Jr, Ivler D: The role of antibiotics in the management of open fractures. J Bone Joint Surg 56 (A): 532, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Burdon JG, Morris PJ, Hunt P, Watts JM: A trial of cephalothin sodium in colon surgery to prevent wound infection. Arch Surg 112: 1169–1173, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cuchural G, Jacobus N, Gorbach SL, Tally FP: A survey of Bacteroides susceptibility in the United States. J Antimicrob Chemother 8 (Suppl D): 27–31, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Busutil RW, Davidson RK, Fine M, Tompkins RK: Effect of prophylactic antibiotics on acute nonperforated appendicitis: a prospective, random-ized, double-blind clinical study. Ann Surg 194: 502–509, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Berne TV, Yellin AE, Appleman MD, Heseltine PNR: Antibiotic management of surgically treated gangrenous or perforated appendicitis. Am J Surg 144: 8–13, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Heseltine PNR, Yellin AE, Appleman MD, et al.: Perforated and gangrenous appendicitis—an analysis of antibiotic failures. J Infect Dis 148:322– 329, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Yellin AE, Heseltine PNR, Appleman MD, Berne TV, Gill MA, Riggio CE, Chenella FC: Ampicil- lin-sulbactam (CP45,899) treatment of gangrenous and perforated appendicitis: the role of Pseudomonas sp. in failures. Surg Gynecol Obstet (in press).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Anonymous: Imipenem/cilastatin versus gentamicin/clindamycin for treatment of serious bacterial infections: report from a Scandinavian Study Group. Lancet 1 (8382): 868–871, 1984.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Heseltine PNR, Berne TV, Appleman MD, et al.: Imipenem (thienamycin) therapy of enterogenous peritonitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet (in press).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Stone HH, Kolb, L, Geheber CE: Moxalactam versus gentamicin-clindamycin in surgical sepsis. Efficacy and safety. Praxis 72: 351–355, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bartlett SP, Burton RC: Effects of prophylactic antibiotics on wound infection after colon and rectal surgery: 1960 to 1980. Am J Surg 145: 300–309, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lewis RT, Allan CM, Goodall RG, Lloyd-Smith WC, Marien B, Park M, Wiegand FM: Preventing anaerobic infection in surgery of the colon. Can J Surg 24: 139–141, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nichols RL: Prophylaxis for intraabdominal surgery. Rev Infect Dis 6 (l): S276–282, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Figueras-Felip J, Basilio-Bonet E. Lara-Eisman F, et al.: Oral is superior to systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in operations upon the colon and rectum. Surg Gynecol Obstet 158: 359–362, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Condon RE, Bartlett JG, Greenlee H, et al.: Efficacy of oral and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis in colorectal operations. Arch Surg 118: 496–502, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Portnoy J, Kagan E, Gordon PH, Mendelson J: Prophylactic antibiotics in elective colorectal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 26: 310–313, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Peck JJ, Fuchs PC, Gustafson ME: Antimicrobial prophylaxis in elective colon surgery. Experience of 1,035 operations in a community hospital. Am J Surg 147: 633–637, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Slama TG, Carey LC, Fass RJ: Comparative efficacy of prophylactic cephalothin and cefamandole for elective colon surgery: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Am J Surg 137: 593–596, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Meislin HW, Lerner SA, Graves MH, et al.: Cutaneous abscesses. Ann Intern Med 87: 145–149, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bohnen JM, Meakins JL: Treatment of intraabdominal sepsis: Can J Surg 27: 222–223, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Burke JF: Preventive antibiotics in surgery. Postgr Med 58: 65, 1975.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hooton TM, Haley RW, Culver DH, White JW, Morgan WM, Carroll RJ: The joint associations of multiple risk factors with the occurrence of no-socomial infection. Am J Med 70: 960–970, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sherlock DJ, Ward A, Holl-Allen RT: Combined preoperative antibiotic therapy and intraoperative topical povidone-iodine. Reduction of wound sepsis following emergency appendectomy. Arch Surg 119: 909–911, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Creve U, Hubens A: Single-dose parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis in gastrointestinal surgery. Acta Chir Belg 79: 27–33, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Anderson ET, Young LS, Hewitt WL: Simultaneous antibiotic levels in “breakthrough” gram- negative rod bacteremia. Am J Med 61: 493–497, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Finch DR, Taylor L, Morris PJ: Wound sepsis following gastrointestinal surgery: a comparison of topical and two-dose systemic cephradine. Br J Surg 66: 580–582, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rapp RP, Bannon CL, Bivins BA: The influence of dose frequency and agent toxicity on the cost of parenteral antibiotic therapy. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 16: 935–938, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sanford JP: The prophylactic use of antibiotics: basic considerations. South Med J 70 (Suppl 1): 2–3, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hirschmann JV: Rational antibiotic prophylaxis. Hosp Pract 16: 105–123, November 1981.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Moellering RC Jr: Antimicrobial prophylaxis—in-dications in medical patients. Scand J Infect Dis 36 (Suppl): 129–133, 1982.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Scheifle DW: Prophylactic antibiotics in children. Ped Infect Dis 1: 420–424, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    CDC: Prevention of malaria in travelers, 1982. MMWR 31:IS–28S, 1982.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    CDC: Health information of international travel, 1984, Atlanta, GA, Centers for Disease Control. HHS Publication No (CDC) 84–8280; 33: 11–58, 1984.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    CDC: Imported malaria among travelers—United States. MMWR 33: 388–390, 1984.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Spencer HC, Strickland GT: Malaria. In Strick-land GT (ed): Hunter’s tropical medicine, 6th ed. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, pp 516–552, 1984.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    CDC: Adverse reactions to Fansidar® and updated recommendations for its use in malaria. MMWR 33: 713–714, 1985.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wilson MG, Lubschez R: Recurrence rate in rheu-matic fever: the evaluation of etiologic concepts and consequent preventive therapy. JAMA 126: 477–480, 1944.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mortimer EA, Rammelkamp CH: Prophylaxis of rheumatic fever. Circulation 14: 1144 – 1152, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bisno AL, Pearce I A, Stollerman GH: Streptococcal infections which fail to cause recurrences of rheumatic fever. J Infect Dis 136: 278–285, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wood HF, Feinstein AR, Taranta A, et al.: Rheumatic fever in children and adolescents. Ann Intern Med 60: 31–46, 1964.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Feinstein AR, Wood HF, Spagnuolo M, et al.: Oral prophylaxis of recurrent rheumatic fever. Sul-fadiazine vs a double daily dose of penicillin. JAMA 188: 489–492, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Feinstein AR, Spagnuolo M, et al.: Oral prophylaxis of recurrent rheumatic fever. Therapeutic- continuous oral penicillin vs monthly injections. JAMA 206: 565 - 568, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    American Heart Association Committee Report: Prevention of rheumatic fever. Circulation 55: 1–4, 1977.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Anonymous: Preventing spread of meningococcal disease. Med Lett 23: 37–81, 1981.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kuhns DM, Nelson CT, Feldman HA, Kuhn LR: The prophylactic valve of sulfadiazine in the control of meningococcic meningitis. JAMA 123: 335–339, 1943.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Millar JW, Seiss EE, Feldman HA, Silverman C, Franks P: In vivo and in vitro resistance to sulfa-diazine in strains of Neisseria meningitidis. JAMA 186: 139–141, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hoeprich PD: Prediction of antimeningococcic chemoprophylactic efficacy. J Infect Dis 123: 125–133, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Deal WB, Sanders E: Efficacy of rifampin in the treatment of meningococcal carriers. N Engl J Med 281: 641–645, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Devine LF, Johnson DP, Hagerman CR, Pierce WE, Rhode SL, Peckinpaugh RO: The effect of minocycline on meningococcal nasopharyngeal carrier state in naval personnel. Am J Epidemiol 93: 337–345, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    CDC: Vestibular reactions to minocycline: followup. MMWR 24: 55, 1975.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fraser DW, Geil CC, Feldman RA: Bacterial men-ingitis in Bernalillo County, New Mexico: a com-parison with three other American populations. Amer J Epidemiol 100: 29–34, 1974.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Band JD, Fraser DW, Ajello G, Hemophilus influ-enzae Study Group: Prevention of Hemophilus in-fluenzae, type B, disease. JAMA 251: 2381–2386, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    CDC. Bacterial meningitis and meningococcemia. United States, 1978, MMWR 28: 277–279, 1979.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Osterholm MT, Murphy TV: Does rifampin pro-phylaxis prevent disease caused by Hemophilus influenzae, type b? JAMA 251: 2408–2409, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hughes WT, Kuhn S, Chaudhary S, Feldman S, Verzosa M, Aur RJA, Pratt C, George SL: Suc-cessful chemoprophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. N. Engl J Med 297: 1419–1426, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Gottlieb MS, Knight S, Mitsuyasu R, Weisman J, Roth M, and Young LS: Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii infection in AIDS with pyrimetha- mine-sulfadoxine. Lancet 2: 398–399, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Glassroth J, Robins AG, Snider DE Jr: Tuberculosis in the 1980s. N Engl J Med 302: 1441–1450, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Comstock GW, Braum C, Snider DE Jr: Isoniazid prophylaxis among Alaskan Eskimos: a final report of the Bethel isoniazid studies. Am Rev Resp Dis 119: 827–830, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Garibaldi RA, Drusin RE, Ferebee SH, Gregg MB: Isoniazid associated hepatitis: report of an outbreak. Am Rev Resp Dis 106: 357–365, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kopanoff DE, Snider DE Jr, Caras GJ: Isoniazid- related hepatitis: a U.S. Public Health Service co-operative surveillance study. Amer Rev Resp Dis 117: 991–1001, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bailey RR, Gower PE, and Roberts AP. Prevention of urinary tract infection with low-dose nitro-furantoin. Lancet 2: 1112–1114, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Byrd RB, Horn RB, Solomon DA, Griggs GA: Toxic effects of isoniazid in tuberculosis chemopro-phylaxis: role of biochemical monitoring in 1000 patients. JAMA 241: 1239–1241, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Shulman ST, et al.: Prevention of bacterial endocarditis. A statement for health professionals by the committee on rheumatic fever and infective endocarditis of the council on cardiovascular disease in the young. Circulation 70. 1123A–1127A, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sack DA, Kaminsky DC, Sack RB, et al.: Prophylactic doxycycline for travelers’ diarrhea: results of a prospective double-blind study of Peace Corps volunteers in Kenya. N Engl J Med 298: 758–763, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sack RB, Froehlick JL, Zulich AW, et al.: Prophy-lactic doxycycline for travelers’ diarrhea: results of a prospective double-blind study of Peace Corps volunteers in Morocco. Gastroenterology 76: 1368–1373, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    DuPont HL, Sullivan P, Evans DG, et al.: Prevention of travelers’ diarrhea (emporiatic enteritis): prophylactic administration of subsalicylate bismuth. JAMA 243: 237–241, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Stamey TA: Urinary tract infections in the female:a perspective. In Remington JS, Swartz MN (eds): Current clinical topics in infectious diseases. McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York, pp 31–53, 1981.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Stamey TA, Condy M: The diffusion and concentration of trimethoprim on human vaginal fluid. J Infect Dis 131: 261–266, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Harding GKM, Ronald ARA: A controlled study of antimicrobial prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in women. N Engl J Med 291: 597–601, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Stamey TA, Condy M, and Mihara G: Prophylactic efficacy of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals and tri-methoprim-sulfamethoxazole in urinary infections. N Engl J Med 296: 780–783, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 1132.
    Vosti KL: Recurrent urinary tract infections. Prevention by prophylactic antibiotics after sexual in-tercourse. JAMA 231: 934–940, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Stamm WE, McKevitt M, Counts GW, Wagner KF, Turck M, and Holmes KH: Is antimicrobial prophylaxis of urinary tract infections cost effective? Ann Intern Med 94: 251–255, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Wong ES, McKevitt M, Running K, Counts GW, Turck M, Stamm WE: Management of recurrent urinary tract infections with patient-administered single-dose therapy. Ann Intern Med 102: 302–307, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Maynard JE, Fleshman K, Tschopp CF: Otitis media in Alaskan Eskimo children. JAMA 219: 579–599, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Perrin JM, Charney E, MacWhinney JB Jr, et al.: Sulfisoxazole as chemoprophylaxis for recurrent otitis media: a double-blind cross-over study in pediatric practice. N Engl J Med 291: 664–667, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Biedel CW: Modification or recurrent otitis media by short-term Sulfonamid therapy. Am J Dis Child 132: 681 - 683, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Schwartz RH, Rodriguez WJ: Trimethoprim-sul-famethoxazole prophylaxis in recurrent otitis media of patients with middle ear effusions following acute otitis media. Presented at the 20th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, New Orleans, abstract 127, 1980.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Feder HM: Chemoprophylaxis in ambulatory pediatrics. Ped Infect Dis 2: 251–257, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Zoler ML: Chemotherapeutic agents against RNA viruses: ranks swelling. JAMA 249: 989–992, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sabin AB: Amantadine and influenza evaluation of conflicting reports. J Infect Dis 138: 557–566, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Dolin R, Reichman RC, Madore HP, Maynard R, Linton PN, Webber-Jones J: A controlled trial of amantadine and rimantadine in the prophylaxis of influenza A infection. N Engl J Med 307: 580–588, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Armstrong D: Infections in patients with neoplastic disease. In: Verhoef J, Peterson PK, Quie PG (eds): Infections in the immunocompromised host—pathogenesis, prevention and therapy. El- sevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 129–158, 1980.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Johanson WG, Pierce AK, Sanford JP: Changing pharyngeal flora of hospitalized patients, emergence of gram-negative bacilli. N Engl J Med 269: 1137–1140, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Schimpff SC, Green WH, Young VM, et al.: Infection prevention in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Laminar air-flow room reverse isolation with oral, nonabsorbable antibiotic prophylaxis. Ann Intern Med 82: 351–358, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Henry SA: Chemoprophylaxis of bacterial infections in granulocytopenic patients. Am J Med 76: 645–651, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Levine AS, Siegel SE, Schreiber AD, et al.: Protected environments: a prospective controlled study of their utility in the therapy of acute leukemia. N Engl J Med 288: 477–483, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Yates JW, Holland JF: A controlled study of isola-tion and endogenous microbial suppression in acute myelocytic leukemia patients. Cancer 32: 1490–1498, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Rodriguez V, Bodey GP, Freireich EJ, et al.: Randomized trial of protected environment-prophylac- tic antibiotics in 145 adults with acute leukemia. Medicine (Baltimore) 57: 253–266, 1978.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    EORTC Gnotobiotic Group: Protective isolation and antimicrobial decontamination in patients with high susceptibility to infection. Infection 6: 175–191, 1978.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Reiter B, Gee T, Young L, Dowling M, Armstrong D: Use of oral antibiotics during remission induction in adult patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemias (ANLL) [abstract]. Clin Res 21: 652, 1973.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Enno A, Catovsky D, Darrell J, Goldman JM, Hows J, Galton DAG: Cotrimoxazole for prevention of infection in acute leukemia. Lancet 2: 395–397, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gurwith MJ, Brunton HL, Lank BA, Harding GF, Ronald AR: A prospective controlled investigation of prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazole in hospitalized granulocytopenic patients. Am J Med 66: 248–256, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Pizzo PA, Robichaud KJ, Brenda KE, Schumaker C, Barrett KS: Oral antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cancer: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Ped 102: 125–133, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Dekker AW, Rozenberg-Arska M, Sixma J J, Verhoef J: Prevention of infection by trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole plus amphotericin B in patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. Ann Intern Med 95:555–559, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Wade J, DeJongh C, Newman K, Wiernik P, Schimpff SC: Selective antimicrobial modulation as prophylaxis against infection during granulocy-topenia: trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole vs. nalidixic acid. J. Infect Dis 147:624–634, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Calvo F, Marty M, Lepors JS, Ferine C, Boiron M: Antibiotic prophylaxis against infections in acute leukemia. NEJM 305(10):583–584, Sept. 3, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Zinner S, Gaya H, Glauser M, et al.: Cotrimoxa- zole and reduction of risk of infection in neutropenic patients: a progress report. Proceedings of the 21st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, abstract 795. Chicago, Nov 4 - 6, 1981.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Meunier-Carpentier F: Chemoprophylaxis of fungal infections. Am J Med 76: 652–656, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    CDC: Gonorrhea: CDC recommended treatment schedules, 1979. MMWR 28: 17–20, 1979.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    CDC: Syphilis: CDC recommended treatment schedules. J Infect Dis 134: 97 - 99, 1976.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Broome CV, Preblud SR, Bruner B, et al.: Epide-miology of pertussis, Atlanta, 1977. J Ped 98: 362–367, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Linnemann CC Jr, Ramundo N, Peristein PH, et al.: Use of pertussis vaccine in an epidemic involving hospital staff. Lancet 2: 540–543, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Bass JW, Klenk, EL, Kotheimer JB, et al: Antimi-crobial treatment of pertussis. J Pediat 75: 768–781, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Altemeier WA, Ayoub EM: Erythromycin pro-phylaxis for pertussis. Pediatrics 59: 623–625, 1977.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter N. R. Heseltine
  • John M. Leedom

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations