Advertisement

Conceptions of Crowds and Crowding

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Social Psychology book series (SSSOC)

Abstract

In a volume that has as its topic theories of crowd mind and behavior, taken as one origin of social psychology, it appears consistent if not compelling to include theories of crowding. The linguistic relationship of “crowds” and “crowding” is most evident in the English language, in which “crowd” can be used as a noun or a verb. In the German language, the situation is completely different. There are no verbal forms, derived from Masse or Menge or any other equivalent of “crowd,” which could be used for “crowding”; the situation is similar in French, where neither la masse nor la foule have corresponding verbal derivations. Thus, we are always at a loss when we have to translate “crowding” both in everyday language and in scientific discourse. But beyond the linguistic labels it is the phenomena, which we describe as crowds and crowding, that seem to belong to the same category of events or experiences, or at least, they seem to overlap. If we think of crowds as large numbers of people we typically imagine them as packed together in close proximity to each other. “(Too) many people in (too) little space” may serve as a preliminary schema signifying some basic communalities between phenomena of crowds and of crowding. Before we look at such communalities and distinctive features of crowds and crowding more closely I will outline briefly the reason and purpose of this chapter.

Keywords

Collective Behavior Spatial Density Mass Destruction Social Facilitation Crowd Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allport, F. H. (1924). Social psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  2. Altman, I. (1975). The environment and social behavior. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  3. Baron, R. M., and Rodin, J. (1978). Personal control and crowding stress: Processes mediating the impact of spatial and social density. In A. Baum, J. E. Singer, and S. Valins (Eds.), Human response to crowding (pp. 145–189 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  4. Baum, A., and Epstein, Y. M. (Eds.), Human response to crowding. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Baum, A., and Valins, S. (1977). Architecture and social behavior: Psychological studies of social density. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. Booth, A., and Welch, S. (1973). The effects of crowding: A cross-national study. Unpublished manuscript, Ministry of State for Urban Affairs, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  7. Booth, A., Welch, S., and Johnson, D. R. (1976). Crowding and urban crime rates. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 11, 291–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brehm, J. (1966). A theory of psychological reactance. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, R. W. (1965). Social psychology. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  10. Calhoun, J. (1962). Population density and social pathology. Scientific American, 206, 139–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cantril, H. (1952). The invasion from Mars. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Christian, J. J. (1970). Social subordination, population density, and mammalian evolution. Science, 168, 84–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Christian, J. J., Flyger, V., and Davis, D. E. (1960). Factors in the mass mortality of a herd of Sika Deer (Cervus Nippon). Chesapeake Science, 1, 79–95.Google Scholar
  14. Cohen, S. (1978). Environmental load and the allocation of attention. In A. Baum, J. Singer, and S. Valins (Eds.), Advances in environmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 1–29 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Cottrell, N. B. (1972). Social facilitation. In G. G. McClintock (Ed.), Experimental social psychology (pp. 185–236 ). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  16. Cox, V. C, Paulus, P. B., McCain, G., and Schkade, J. K. (1979). Field research on the effects of crowding in prisons and on offshore drilling platforms. In J. R. Aiello and A. Baum (Eds.), Residential crowding and design (pp. 95–106 ). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  17. Desor, J. A. (1972). Toward a psychological theory of crowding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Evans, G. W. (1978). Human spatial behavior: The arousal model. In A. Baum and Y. M. Epstein (Eds.), Human response to crowding (pp. 283–302 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Freedman, J. L. (1975). Crowding and behavior. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  20. Freedman, J. L. (1979). Reconciling apparent differences between the responses of humans and other animals to crowding. Psychological Review, 86, 80–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Freedman, J. L., Heshka, S., and Levy, A. (1975). Population density and pathology: Is there a relationship? Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 11, 539–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Freedman, J. L., and Perlick, D. (1979). Crowding, contagion, and laughter. Journal of Experi-mental and Social Psychology, 15, 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Freud, S. (1953). Group psychology and the analysis of the ego. In J. Strachey (Ed.), The standard edition of the complete works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 12 ). London: Hogarth Press. ( Original work published 1921–1922 )Google Scholar
  24. Galle, O. R., Gove, W. R., and McPherson, J. M. (1972). Population density and pathology. Science, 176, 23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Global 2000. (1980). Report to the President. Washington: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  26. Graumann, C. F., and Kruse, L. (1984). Masses, foules et densité. In S. Moscovici (Ed.), Psychologie sociale (pp. 513–538 ). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  27. Herrmann, T. (1976). Die Psychologie und ihre Forschungsprogramme. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  28. Hutt, C., and Vaizey, M. J. (1966). Differential effects of group density on social behavior. Nature, 209, 1371–1372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kilduff, M., and Javers, R. (1978). The suicide cult: The inside story of the People’s Temple Sect and the massacre in Guayana. London: Bantam.Google Scholar
  30. Knowles, E. (1978). The gravity of crowding: Application of social physics to the effect of others. In A. Baum and Y. M. Epstein (Eds.), Human response to crowding (pp. 183–218 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Kruse, L. (1975). Crowding: Dichte und Enge aus sozialpsychologischer Sicht. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 6, 2–30.Google Scholar
  32. Lang, G. E. (1976). Der Ausbruch von Ibmulten bei Sportveranstaltungen. In G. Lüschen and K. Weis (Eds.), Die Soziologie des Sports (pp. 273–295 ). Darmstadt: Luchterhand.Google Scholar
  33. Lang, K., and Lang, G. E. (1961). Collective dynamics. New York: Crowell.Google Scholar
  34. Lang, K., and Lang, G. E. (1968). Collective behavior. In D. L. Sills (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (Vol. II, pp. 556–565 ). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  35. Langer, E. J., and Saegert, S. (1977). Crowding and cognitive control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Le Bon, G. (1903). The crowd. London: Unwin. (Original work published 1895 )Google Scholar
  37. Loo, C. M. (1972). The effect of spatial density on the social behavior of children. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2, 372–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Loo, C. M. (1984). Crowding perceptions, attitudes, and consequences among the Chinese. Environment and Behavior, 16, 55–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Loo, C. M., and Kennelly, D. (1979). Social density: Its effects on behaviors and perceptions of preschoolers. Environmental Psychology and Nonverbal Behavior, 3, 131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mann, L. (1970). The social psychology of waiting lines. American Scientist, 58, 390–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Marsh, P., Rosser, E., and Harre, R. (1978). The rules of disorder. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  42. McCarthy, D., and Saegert, S. (1978). Residential density, social overload, and social withdrawal. Human Ecology, 6, 253–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McDougall, W. (1908). An introduction to social psychology. London: Methuen. (Reprinted 1967 by Morrison and Gibb)Google Scholar
  44. Milgram, S. (1970). The experience of living in cities. Science, 167, 1461–1468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Milgram, S. (1977). The individual in a social world. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  46. Milgram, S., and Toch, H. (1969). Collective behavior: Crowds and social movements. In G. Lindzey and E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. IV, pp. 507–610 ). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  47. Mitscherlich, A. (1975). Massenpsychologie ohne Ressentiment ( 2nd ed. ). Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  48. Montano, D., and Adamopoulos, J. (1984). The perception of crowding in interpersonal situations. Environment and Behavior, 16 (5), 643–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Moscovici, S. (1981a). L’âge des foules. Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  50. Moscovici, S. (1981b). On social representation. In J. R Forgas (Ed.), Social cognition (pp. 181–209 ). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  51. Paulus, P. B. (Ed.). (1980). Psychology of group influences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  52. Paulus, P. B. (Ed.). (1980). Crowding. In P. B. Paulus (Ed.), Psychology of group influences (pp. 245–289 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  53. Paulus, P. B. (1983). Group influence on individual task performance. In P. B. Paulus (Ed.), Basic group processes (pp. 97–120 ). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  54. Proshansky, H., Ittelson, W. H., and Rivlin, L. (1970). Freedom of choice and behavior in a physical setting. In H. Proshansky, W. H. Ittelson, and L. Rivlin (Eds.), Environmental psychology (pp. 173–183 ). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  55. Rodin, J. (1976). Density, perceived choice, and response to controllable and uncontrollable outcomes. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 72, 564–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rodin, J., and Baum, A. (1978). Crowding and helplessness: Potential consequences of density and loss of control. In A. Baum and Y. M. Epstein (Eds.), Human response to crowding (pp. 389–401 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. Russell, J. A., and Ward, L. M. (1982). Environmental psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 33, 651–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sadalla, E. K. (1978). Population size, structural differentiation and human behavior. Envi-ronment and Behavior, 10, 271–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Saegert, S. (1978). High-density environments: Their personal and social consequences. In A. Baum and Y. M. Epstein (Eds.), Human response to crowding (pp. 257–281 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  60. Schmidt, D., and Keating, J. (1979). Human crowding and personal control. An integration of the research. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 680–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schopler, J., and Stockdale, J. E. (1977). An interference analysis of crowding. Environmental Psychology and Non-verbal Behavior, 1, 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shapere, D. (1974). Scientific theories and their domains. In F. Suppe (Ed.), The structure of scientific theories (pp. 518–565 ). Urbana, IL: University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Sighele, S. (1901). La foule criminelle. Paris: Alcan.Google Scholar
  64. Simmel, G. (1950). The metropolis and mental life. In K. Wolff (Ed. and Trans.), The sociology of Georg Simmel (pp. 409–424 ). Glencoe, IL: Free Press. ( Original work published 1905 )Google Scholar
  65. Smelser, M. J. (1963). Theory of collective behavior. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  66. Smith, F. J., and Lawrence, J. E. (1978). Alone and crowded: The effects of spatial restriction on measures of affect and simulation response. Journal of Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 4, 139–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stockdale, D. (1978). Crowding: Determinants and effects. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 11, pp. 197–247 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  68. Stokols, D. (1972a). On the distinction between density and crowding. Some implications for further research. Psychological Review, 79, 275–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stokols, D. (1972b). A social-psychological model of human crowding phenomena. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 38, 77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stokols, D. (1976). The experience of crowding in primary and secondary environments. Environment and Behavior, 8, 49–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stokols, D. (1978a). In defense of the crowding construct. In A. Baum, J. E. Singer, and S. Valins (Eds.), Advances in environmental psychology (pp. 111–130 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  72. Stokols, D. (1978b). A typology of crowding experiences. In A. Baum and Y. A. Epstein (Eds.), Human response to crowding (pp. 219–255 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  73. Sundstrom, E. (1978). Crowding as a sequential process: Review of research on the effects of population density on humans. In A. Baum and Y. M. Epstein (Eds.), Human response to crowding (pp. 32–116 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  74. Tarde, G. (1898). Le public et la foule. Revue de Pans, 3, 615–635.Google Scholar
  75. Tarde, G. (1903). The laws of imitation. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  76. Turner, R. H. (1964). Collective behavior. In R. E. L. Faris (Ed.), Handbook of modem sociology (pp. 382–425 ). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  77. Turner, R. H., and Killian, L. M. (1957). Collective behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  78. Wicker, A. (1973). Undermanning theory and research: Implications for the study of psychological and behavioral effects of excess human population. Representative Research in Psychology, 4, 185–206.Google Scholar
  79. Wicker, A. (1979). An introduction to ecological psychology. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  80. Wirth, L. (1938). Urbanism as a way of life. American Journal of Sociology, 44, 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Worchel, S., and Teddlie, C. (1976). Factors affecting the experience of crowding: A two factor theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 30–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zajonc, R. (1965). Social facilitation. Science, 149, 269–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zajonc, R. (1980). Compresence. In R B. Paulus (Ed.), Psychology of group influences (pp. 35–60 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  84. Zlutnick, S., and Altman, J. (1972). Crowding and human behavior. In J. Wohlwill and D. Carson (Eds.), Environment and the social sciences (pp. 44–58 ). Washington: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations