A Multifunctional On-Line Brain Stimulation System: Investigation of Alcohol and Aging Effects

  • Michael J. Lewis
  • Richard W. Phelps


A multifunctional on-line brain stimulation system designed for brain stimulation reward (BSR) research is described. This microcomputer-based system provides programs which permit determination of BSR thresholds, BSR response rates, and brain resistance. Studies using this system to investigate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and the effects of aging on BSR are discussed.


Brain Stimulation Lateral Hypothalamus Threshold Determination Brain Impedance Brain Site 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arenberg, D., & Robertson-Tchabo. (1977). Learning and aging. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  2. Brody, H. (1976). An examination of cerebral cortex and brain stem aging. In R. D. Terry and S. Gerhson (Eds.), Aging: Neurobiology of aging. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  3. Caggiula, A. R., & Hoebel, B. G. (1966). “Copulation-reward site” in the posterior hypothalamus. Science, 153, 1284–1285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carlson, R. H., & Lydic, R. (1976). The effects of ethanol upon threshold and response rate for self-stimulation. Psychopharmacology, 50, 61–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cassens, G., & Mills, A. (1973). Lithium and amphetamine: Opposite effects on threshold of intracranial reinforcement. Psychopharmaco1ogia, 30, 283–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cassens, G., Shaw, C., Dudding, K., & Mills, A. (1975). On-line brain stimulation: Measurement of threshold of reinforcement. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 7, 145–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark, A. N. G., & Manikar, G. D. (1979). D-amphetamine in elderly patients refractory to rehabilitation procedures. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 27, 174–177.Google Scholar
  8. Craik, F. I. M. (1977). Age differences in human memory. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  9. Dayan, A. D. (1971). Comparative neuropathology of aging studies on the brain of 47 species of vertebrates. Brain, 94, 31–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elias, M. F., & Elias, P. K. (1977). Motivation and activity. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  11. Emde, J. W., & Shipton, H. W. (1970). A digital controlled constant current stimulator. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 29, 310–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Esposito, R. U., & Kornetsky, C. (1978). Opioids and rewarding brain stimulation. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2, 115–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ferster, M., & Skinner, B. (1957). Schedule of reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Croft.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gallistel, C. R. (1973). Self-stimulation: The neurobiology of reward and motivation. In J. A. Deutsch (Ed.), The physiological basis of memory. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. German, D. C., & Bowden, D. M. (1974). Catecholamine systems as the neural substrate for intracranial self-stimulation: A hypothesis. Brain Research, 73, 381–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Glowinski, J., & Axelrod, J. (1966). Effects of drugs on the disposition of H3 — norepinephrine in the rat brain. Pharmacological Review, 18, 775–785.Google Scholar
  17. Huston, J. (1968). Reinforcement reduction: A method for training ratio behavior. Science, 159, 444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huston, J. P., & Mills, A. W. (1971). Threshold of reinforcing brain stimulation. Communications in Behavioral Biology, 5, 331–340.Google Scholar
  19. Ingram, L. O. (1982). Effect of alcohol on membranes. In National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Biomedical processes and consequences of alcohol use (Alcohol and Health Monograph 2, pp. 3–27). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  20. Jacobowitz, D. M. (1978). Monoaminergic pathways in the central nervous system. In M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, & K. F. Killam (Eds.), Psychophàrmacology: A generation of progress (pp. 119–129). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  21. Lewis, M. J. (1980). Naloxone suppression brain stimulation reward in the VNB but not in MFB. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 6, 367.Google Scholar
  22. Lewis, M. J. (1981a). Age-related decline in brain stimulation reward: Rejuvenation by amphetamine. Experimental Aging Research, 7, 225–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lewis, M. J. (1981b). Effects of naloxone on brain stimulation reward threshold in the VNB and MFB. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 7, 165.Google Scholar
  24. Marcus, R., & Kornetsky, C. (1974). Negative and positive intracranial reinforcement thresholds: Effects of morphine. Psychopharmacologia, 38, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Margules, D. L., & Olds, J. (1962). Identical “feeding” and “rewarding” systems. Science, 135, 374–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Marshall, J. F., & Berrios, N. (1979). Movement disorders of aged rats. Reversal by dopamine receptor stimulation. Science, 206, 477–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McGeer, E., & McGeer, P. L. (1976). Neurotransmitter metabolism in the aging brain. In R. D. Terry & S. Gerhson (Eds.), Aging: Neurobiology of aging. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  28. McGeer, E., McGeer, P. L., & Suzuki, J. S. (1977). Aging and extrapyramidal function. Archives of Neurology, 34, 33–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Miller, N. E. (1960). Motivating effects of brain stimulation and drugs. Federation Proceedings, 19, 846–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Olds, J. (1958). Self-stimulation experiments and differentiating reward systems. In H. H. Jasper, L. D. Proctor, R. S. Knighton, W. C. Noshay, & R. T. Costello (Eds.), Reticular formation of the brain (pp. 671–687). Boston: Little & Brown.Google Scholar
  31. Olds, J., Killam, K. F., & Bach-y-Rita, P. (1956). Self-stimulation of the brain used as a screening method for tranquilizing drugs. Science, 124, 265–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Olds, J., Killam, K. F., & Eiduson, S. (1957). Effects of tranquilizers on self-stimulation of the brain. In S. Garratini & V. Ghetti (Eds.), Psychotrophic drugs (pp. 235–243). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  33. Olds, J., & Milner, P. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 419–427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ordy, J. M., Brizzee, K. R., Kaack, B., & Hansche, J. (1978). Age differences in short-term memory and cell loss in the cortex of the rat. Gerontology, 24, 276–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Phelps, R., & Lewis, M. J. (1982). A multifunctional on-line brain stimulation system. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 14, 323–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Routtenberg, A. (1981). Drugs of abuse and the endogenous reinforcement system: The resistance of intracranial self-stimulation behavior to the inebriating effects of ethanol. New York Academy of Sciences, 362, 60–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Smith, B. H., & Sethi, P. K. (1977). Aging and nervous system. Geriatrics, 18, 109–115.Google Scholar
  38. Stein, L. (1968). Chemistry of reward and punishment. In D. H. Efron (Ed.), Psychopharmacology: A review of progress, 1957–1967 (pp. 105–123). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  39. St. Laurent, J. (1972). Brain centers of reinforcement and the effects of alcohol. In B. Kissin & H. Begleiter (Eds.), Biology of alcoholism (pp. 85–106). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  40. St. Laurent, J., & Olds, J. (1967). Alcohol and brain centers of positive reinforcement. In R. Fox (Ed.), Alcoholism — Behavioral research, therapeutic approaches (pp. 80–101). New York: Springer/Verlag.Google Scholar
  41. Uhl, G., Kuhar, M. J., Goodman, R. R., & Snyder, S. H. (1979). Histochemi cal localization of the enkephalins. In E. Usdin, W. E. Bunney, Jr., & N. S. Kline (Eds.), Endorphins in mental health research (pp. 74–83). New York: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  42. Ungerstedt, U. (1971). Stereotaxic mapping of the monoamine pathways in the rat brain. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 82(Suppl. 367), 1–48.Google Scholar
  43. Valenstein, E., & Meyers, W. (1964). Rate independent test of reinforcing consequences of brain stimulation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 57, 52–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vrtunski, P., Murray, R., & Wolin, L. R. (1973). The effect of alcohol on intracranially reinforced response. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 34, 718–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Wauquier, A. (1976). The influence of psychoactive drugs on brain selfstimulation in rats: A review. In A. Wauquier & E. T. Rolls (Eds.), Brain-stimulation reward (pp. 123–170). Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland.Google Scholar
  46. Wayner, M. J., Peterson, R., & Florczyk, A. (1972). A constant device for brain stimulation. Physiology & Behavior, 8, 1189–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wise, R. A. (1978). Catecholamine theories of reward: A critical review. Brain Research, 152, 215–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wise, R. A., & Bozarth, M. A. (1981). Brain substrates for reinforcement and drug self-administration. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology, 5, 467–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Lewis
    • 1
  • Richard W. Phelps
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyHoward UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Cortex CorporationWellesleyUSA

Personalised recommendations