Modern psychotherapy had its origin in the 1890s with the work of Sigmund Freud. By 1912, several of Freud’s followers had split off to form rival schools of thought, and since then, “brands” of psychotherapy and counseling have continued to proliferate. Therapeutic approaches range from behavior modification to past lives therapy, from Eastern meditation to positive thinking. In The Psychology Today Omnibook of Personal Development, Matson (1977) listed 119 therapeutic methods in current use; Karasu (1986) counted over 450. In recognition of the confused state of affairs, Colby (1964) began his review of the various therapies in current use with the simple statement, “Chaos prevails.”
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