Immunoelectron Microscopy of Plant Viruses and Mycoplasma

  • Yogesh C. Paliwal
Part of the Current Topics in Vector Research book series (VECTOR, volume 3)

Abstract

Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) is a general term that covers a group of techniques that utilize the specificity of an antigen—antibody reaction in electron microscopic investigations of biological specimens. More specifically, IEM may be defined as electron microscope (EM) viewing of an immunological reaction where antigen in a liquid suspension or in situ is allowed to react with antibody followed by certain treatments of the adduct to obtain specific qualitative or quantitative information. Although IEM was first introduced to plant viruses by Anderson and Stanley (3), Ball and Brakke (4) provided the first IEM procedure, named “leaf dip serology,” as an improvement over negative staining for plant virus studies. In this classical IEM method, a purified virus preparation, sap from fresh leaf cuts, or a crushed piece of infected leaf is mixed with a suitable dilution of homologous antiserum. After incubation the preparation is viewed in the EM to detect virus particles in the form of clumps; hence the method has also been known as “clumping” (66). Because of the problems of nonspecific clumping observed under some conditions and unreliability in cases of antibody excess or low virus concentrations, this method is not commonly used now.

Keywords

Fatigue Sucrose Maize Germinate Adduct 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Accoto, G.P., 1982, Immunosorbent electron microscopy for detection of fan leaf virus in grapevine, Phytopathol, Medit. 21:75–78.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Almeida, J.D., Stannard, L.M., and Shersby, A.S.M., 1980, A new phenomenon (SMOG) associated with solid phase immune electron microscopy, J. Virol. Meth. 1:325–330.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson, F.A., and Stanley, W.M., 1941, A study by means of the electron microscope of the reaction between tobacco mosaic virus and its antiserum, J. Biol. Chern. 139:339–344.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ball, E.M., and Brakke, M.K., 1968, Leaf-dip serology for electron microscopic identification of plant viruses, Virology 36:152–155.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beier, H., and Shepherd, R.J., 1978, Serologically specific electron microscopy in the quantitative measurement of two isometric viruses, Phytopathology 68 :533–538. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bercks, R., and Querfurth, G., 1971, The use of the latex test for the detection of distant serological relationships among plant viruses, J. Gen. Viral. 12:2532.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boccardo, G., and Milne, R.G., 1981, Enhancement of the immunogenicity of the maize rough dwarf virus outer shell with the cross-linking reagent dithiobis (succinimidyl) propionate, J. Virol. Meth. 3:109–113.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bovey, R., Brugger, J.J., and Gugerli, P., 1982, Detection of fanleaf virus in grapevine tissue extracts by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immune electron microscopy (IEM), in: A.J. McGinnis (ed.), Proceedings of the 7th Meeting ofthe International Council for the Study of Viruses and Virus-like diseases ofthe Grapevine, Agriculture Canada, Research Branch, pp. 259–275.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brlansky, R.H., 1982, Serologically specified electron microscopy for detection and Identification of plant viruses, Presented at workshop on Ultrasensitive Methods for Virus Detection, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brlansky, R.H., and Derrick, K.S., 1979, Detection of seedbome plant viruses using serologically specific electron microscopy, Phytopathology 69:96–100.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carlebach, R., Raccah, B., and Loebenstein, G., 1982, Detection of potato virus Y in the aphid Myzus persicae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Ann. Appl. Bioi. 101:511–516.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Caudwell, A., Meignoz, R., Kuszala, C., Larrue, J., Fleury, A., and Boudon, E., 1982, Purification serologique et observation ultramicroscopique de l’agent pathogene (MLO) de la flavescence doree de la vigne dans les extraits liquids de feves (Viciafaba L.) malades, C. R. Soc. BioI. 176:723–729.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cech, M., and Neubauer, S., 1981, Plant proteases as interfering factors in the electron microscopic detection of alfalfa mosaic and bean yellow mosaic viruses in Solanum laciniatun Ait, Bioi. Plant. (Prague) 23:384–388.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cech, M., Mokra, V., and Branisova, H., 1977, Stabilization of virus particles from the mosaic diseased Freesia by phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride during purification and storage, Biol. Plant. (Prague) 19:65–70.Google Scholar
  15. 14a.
    Chen, M.H., Hiruki, C.; and Okuno, T., 1984, Immunosorbent electron microscopy of dianthoviruses and their pseudorecombinants. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 6:191–195.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Clarke, R.G., Converse, R.H., and Kojima, M., 1980, Enzyme-linked irnmunosorbent assay to detect potato leafroll virus in potato tubers and viruliferous aphids, Plant Dis. 64:43–45.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Cockbain, A.J., Bowen, R., and Vorra-Urai, S., 1976, Seed transmission of broad bean stain virus and Echtes Ackerbohnen mosaik-virus in field beans (Vicia faba), Ann. Appl. Biol. 84:321–332.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Cohen, J., Loebenstein, G., and Milne, R.G., 1982, Effect of pH and other conditions on immunosorbent electron microscopy of several plant viruses, J. Virol. Meth. 4:323–330.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Davis, R.E., 1977, Spiroplasma: Role in the diagnosis of corn stunt disease, in: Proceedings International Maize Virus Disease Colloquium and Workshop, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio, pp.92–98.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Del Vecchio, V.G., Dixon, C., Lemke, and Paul, A., 1978, Immune electron microscopy of virus-like particles of Agaricus bisporus, Exp. Mycol. 2:138–144.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    De May, J., Moermans, M., Geuens, G., Nuydens, R., and de Brabander, M., 1981, High resolution light and electron microscopic localization oftubulin with the IGS (immunogold staining method), Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 5:889–899.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Derrick, K.S., 1973, Quantitative assay for plant viruses using serologically specific electron microscopy, Virology 56:652–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Derrick, K.S., 1978, Double-stranded RNA is present in extracts of tobacco plants infected with tobacco mosaic virus, Science 199:538–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Derrick, K.S., and Brlansky, R.H., 1976, Assay for viruses and mycoplasmas using serologically specific electron microscopy, Phytopathology 66:815–820.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Forsgren, A., and Sjoquist, J., 1966, ‘Protein A’ from Staphylococcus aureus. I. Pseudo-immune reaction with human v-globulin, J. Immunol. 97:822–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    French, R.C., Price, M.A., and Derrick, K.S., 1982, Circular double stranded RNA in potato spindle tuber viroid infected tomatoes, Nature 295:259–260.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Fukuda, M., Okada, Y., Otsuki, Y., and Takebe, I., 1980, The site of initiation of rod assembly on the RNA of a tomato and a cowpea strain of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 101:493–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Garzon, S., Bendayan, M., and Kurstak, E., 1982, Ultrastructural localization of viral antigens using the protein A-gold technique, J. Virol. Meth. 5:67–73.Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    Gildow, F.E., 1982, Coated-vesicle transport of luteoviruses through salivary glands of Myzus persicae, Phytopathology 72:1289–1296.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Gildow, F.E., and Rochow, W.F., 1980, Role of accessory salivary glands in aphid transmission of barley yellow dwarf virus, Virology 104:97–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Gillett, J.M., Morimoto, K.M., Ramsdell, D.C., Baker, K.K., Chaney, W.G., and Esselman, W.J., 1982, A comparison between the relative abilities of ELISA, RIA and ISEM to detect blueberry shoestring virus in its aphid vector, Acta Hortic. 129:25–29.Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    Giunchedi, L., and Langenberg, W.G., 1982, Efficacy of colloidal gold-labeled antibody as measured in a barley strip mosaic virus-lectin-antilectin system, Phytopathology 72:645–647.Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Haberer, K., and Frosch, D., 1982, Lateral mobility of membrane-bound antibodies on the surface of Acholeplasma laidlawii: Evidence for virus-induced cell fusion in a procaryote, J. Bateriol. 152:471–478.Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Hamilton, R.I., and Nichols, C., 1978, Serological methods for detection of pea seed-borne mosaic virus in leaves and seeds of Pisum sativum, Phytopathology 68:539–543.Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    Hamilton, R.I., Nichols, C., and Valentine, B., 1984, Survey for prunl:ls necrotic ringspot and other viruses contaminating the exine of pollen collected by bees, Can. J. Plant Pathol. 6:196–199.Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    Harrison, B.D., and Robinson, D.J., 1981, Tobraviruses, in: E. Kurstak (ed.), Handbook ofPlant Virus Infections: Comparative Diagnosis, ElsevierINorthHolland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp. 515–540.Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    Harville, B.G., and Derrick, K.S., 1978, Identification and prevalence of white clover viruses in Louisiana, Plant Dis. Rep. 62:290–292.Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Hatta, T., and Matthews, R.E.F., 1976, Sites of coat protein accumulation in turnip yellow mosaic virus-infected cells, Virology 73:1–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Haufler, K.Z., and Fulbright, D.W., 1983, Detection of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus by serologically specific electron microscopy, Plant Dis. 67:988–990.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Ishii, T., and Usugi, T., 1982, Detection of citrus tristeza virus by serologically specific electron microscopy, Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Japan 48:231–233.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Katz, D., Straussman, Y., Shaher, A., and Kohn, A., 1980, Solid phase immune electron microscopy (SPIEM) for rapid viral diagnosis, J. Immunol. Meth. 38:171–174.Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Kerlan, C., and Dunez, J., 1983, Application de l’Immunoelectromicroscopie ala detection de deux souches d’un meme virus, Ann. Virol. Inst. Pasteur 134E:417–428.Google Scholar
  43. 42.
    Kerlan, C., Mille, B., and Dunez, J., 1981, Immunosorbent electron microscopy for detecting apple chlorotic leaf spot and plum pox viruses, Phytopathology 71:400–404.Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    Kerlan, C., Mille, B., Detienne, G., and Dunez, J., 1982, Comparison of immunoelectronmicroscopy, immunoenzymology (ELISA) and gel diffusion for investigating virus strain relationships, Ann. Virol. 133:3–14.Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Kojima, M., Chou, T.G., and Shikata, E., 1978, Rapid diagnosis of potato leaf roll virus by immune electron microscopy, Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Japan 44:585–590.Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    Kurstak, E., Tyssen, P., and Kurstak, C., 1977, Immunoperoxidase technique in diagnostic virology and research: Principles and applications, in: E. Kurstak and C. Kurstak (eds.), Comparative Diagnosis of Viral Diseases, Vol. II, Academic Press, New York, pp. 403–448.Google Scholar
  47. 45a.
    Langenberg, W.G., 1986, Virus protein association with cylindrical inclusions of two viruses that infect wheat, J. Gen. Virol. 67: 1161–1168.Google Scholar
  48. 46.
    Lawson, R.H., 1982, Quantification of carnation etched ring virus by immunosorbent electron microscopy, Phytopathology 72:708.Google Scholar
  49. 47.
    Lesemann, D.E., 1982, Advances in virus identification using immunosorbent electron microscopy, Acta Hortic, 127:159–173.Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    Lesemann, D.E., and Paul, H.L., 1980, Conditions for the use of protein A in combination with the Derrick method of immuno electron microscopy, Acta Hortic, 110:119–129.Google Scholar
  51. 49.
    Lesemann, D.E., Bozarth, R.F., and Koenig, R., 1980, The trapping of tymovirus particles on electron microscope grids by adsorption and serological binding, J. Gen. Virol. 48:257–264.Google Scholar
  52. 50.
    Lim, W.L., De Zoeten, G.A., and Hagedorn, D.J., 1977, Scanning electronmicroscopic evidence for attachment of a nonpersistently transmitted virus to its vector’s stylets, Virology 79:121–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 51.
    Lima, J.A.A., and Purcifull, D.E., 1980, Immunochemical and microscopical techniques for detecting blackeye cowpea mosaic and soybean mosaic viruses in hypocotyls of germinated seeds, Phytopathology 70:142–147.Google Scholar
  54. 52.
    Lin, Na-Sheng, and Langenberg, W.G., 1983, Immunohistochemical localization of barley stripe mosaic virions in infected wheat cells, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 84:16–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 53.
    Lisa, V., Luisoni, E., and Milne, R.G., 1981, A possible virus cryptic in carnation, Ann. Appl. Bioi. 98:431–437Google Scholar
  56. 54.
    Lister, R.M., Carroll, T.W., and Zaske, S.K., 1981, Sensitive serologic detection of barley stripe mosaic virus in barley seed, Plant Dis. 65:809–814.Google Scholar
  57. 55.
    Lobuglio, A.F., Rinehart, J.J., and Balcerzak, S.P., 1972, Anew immunological marker for scanning electron microscopy, in: Scanning Electron Microscopy/ 1972, Part II, IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois, pp 313–320.Google Scholar
  58. 56.
    Luisoni, E., Milne, R.G., and Boccardo, G., 1975, The maize rough dwarf virion. II. Serological analysis, Virology 68:86–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 57.
    Luisoni, E., Milne, R.G., and Roggero, P., 1982, Diagnosis of rice ragged stunt virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunosorbent electron microscopy, Plant Dis. 66:929–932.Google Scholar
  60. 58.
    Makkouk, K.M., Koenig, R., and Lesemann, D.E., 1981, Characterization of a tombusvirus isolated from eggplant, Phytopathology 71:572–577.Google Scholar
  61. 59.
    Martin, M.L., and Palmer, E.L., 1983, Electron microscopic identification of rotavirus group antigen with gold-labelled monoclonal IgG, Arch. Virol. 78:279–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 60.
    Meignoz, R., Caudwell, A., Kuszala, C., Schneider, C., Larrue, J., Fleury, A., and Boudon, E., 1983, Serological purification and visualization in the electromicroscope of the grapevine flavescence doree (FD) pathogen (MLO) in diseased plants and infectious vectors extracts, Yale J. Bioi. Med. 56:936–937.Google Scholar
  63. 61.
    Meyer, S., 1982, Peanut mottle virus: Purification and serological relationship with other potyviruses, Phytopathol. Z. 105:271–278.Google Scholar
  64. 62.
    Milne, R.G., 1980, Some observations and experiments of immunosorbent electron microscopy of plant viruses, Acta Hortic. 110:129–135.Google Scholar
  65. 63.
    Milne, R.G., 1984, Electron microscopy for the identification of plant viruses in in vitro preparations, in: K. Maramorosch and H. Koprowski (eds.), Methods in Virology, Vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, pp. 87–120.Google Scholar
  66. 64.
    Milne, R.G., and Lesemann, D.E., 1978, An immunoelectron microscopic investigation of oat sterile dwarf and related viruses, Virology 90:299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 65.
    Milne, R.G., and Lesemann, D.E., 1984, Immunosorbent electron microscopy in plant virus studies, in: K. Maramorosch and H. Koprowski (eds.), Methods in Virology, Vol. 8, Academic Press, New York, pp. 85–101.Google Scholar
  68. 66.
    Milne, R.G., and Luisoni, E., 1977, Rapid immune electron microscopy of virus preparations, in: K. Maramorosch and H. Koprowski (eds.), Methods in Virology, Vol. 6, Academic Press, New York, pp. 265–281.Google Scholar
  69. 67.
    Milne, R.G., Masenga, V., and Lovisolo, 0., 1980, Viruses associated with white bryony (Bryonia cretica L.) mosaic in northern Italy, Phytopathol. Medit. 19:115–120.Google Scholar
  70. 68.
    Moffitt, E.M., and Lister, R.M., 1975, Application of a serological screening test for detecting double-stranded RNA mycoviruses, Phytopathology 65:851–859.Google Scholar
  71. 69.
    Nicolaieff, A., and Regenmortel, M.R.V., 1980, Specificity of trapping of plant viruses on antibody-coated electron microscope grids, Ann. Virol.Inst. Pasteur 131E:95–110.Google Scholar
  72. 70.
    Nicolaieff, A., Katz, D., and Van Regenmortel, M.R.V., 1982, Comparison of two methods of virus detection by immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) using protein A, J. Virol. Meth. 4:155–166.Google Scholar
  73. 71.
    Noel, M.C., Kerlan, C., Garnier, M., and Dunez, J., 1978, Possible use of immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) for the detection of plum pox virus in fruit trees, Ann. Phytopathol. 10:381–386.Google Scholar
  74. 72.
    Otsuki, Y., Takebe, I., Ohno, T., Fukuda, M., and Okada, Y., 1977, Reconstitution of tobacco mosaic virus rods occurs bidirectionally from an internal initiation region: Demonstration by electron microscopic serology, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:1913–1917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 73.
    Paliwal, Y.C., 1977, Rapid diagnosis of barley yellow dwarf virus in plants using serologically specific electron microscopy, Phytopathol. Z. 89:25–36.Google Scholar
  76. 74.
    Paliwal, Y.C., 1979, Serological relationships of barley yellow dwarf virus isolates, Phytopathol. Z. 94:8–15.Google Scholar
  77. 74.
    Paliwal, Y.C., 1982a, Detection of barley yellow dwarf virus in aphids by serologically specific electron microscopy, Can. J. Bot. 60 :179–185. Google Scholar
  78. 76.
    Paliwal, Y.C., 1982b, Role of perennial grasses, winter wheat, and aphid vectors in the disease cycle and epidemiology of barley yellow dwarf virus, Can. J. Plant Pathol. 4:367–374.Google Scholar
  79. 77.
    Pares, R.D., and Whitecross, M.I., 1982, Gold-labelled antibody decoration (GLAD) in the diagnosis of plant viruses by immuno-electron microscopy, J. Immunol. Meth. 51:23–28.Google Scholar
  80. 78.
    Pares, R.D., and Whitecross, M.I., 1983, A critical examination of the utilization of serum coated grids to increase particle numbers for length determination of rod-shaped plant viruses, J. Virol. Meth. 7:241–250.Google Scholar
  81. 79.
    Pegg-Feige, K., and Doane, F.W., 1983, Effect of specimen support film in solid phase immunoelectron microscopy, J. Virol. Meth. 7:315–319.Google Scholar
  82. 80.
    Reissig, M., and Orwell, S.A., 1970, A technique for the electron microscopy of protein free particle suspensions by the negative staining method, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 32:107–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 81.
    Rifkind, R.A., 1976, Ferritin conjugated antibody markers for electron microscopy, in: C.A. Williams and M.W. Chase (eds.), Methods ofImmunology and Immunochemistry, Vol. 5, Academic Press, New York, pp. 457–463.Google Scholar
  84. 82.
    Roberts, I.M., 1980, A method for providing comparative counts of small particles in electron microscopy, J. Microsc. 118:241–245.Google Scholar
  85. 83.
    Roberts, I.M., 1981a, Factors affecting immunosorbent electron microscopy, Rep. Scott. Hortic. Res. Inst. 1980:106–107.Google Scholar
  86. 84.
    Roberts, I.M., 1981b, Electron microscope serology techniques, in: Proceedings AAB Workshop on Electron Microscope Serology, John Innes Institute, Norwich, England, pp. 10–12.Google Scholar
  87. 85.
    Roberts, I.M., and Brown, D.J.F., 1980, Detection of six nepoviruses in 248 Y.C. Paliwal their nematode vectors by immunosorbent electron microscopy, Ann. Appl. Bioi. 96:187–192.Google Scholar
  88. 86.
    Roberts, I.M., and Harrison, B.D., 1979, Detection of potato leafroll and potato mop-top viruses by immunosorbent electron microscopy, Ann. Appl. Bioi. 93:289–297.Google Scholar
  89. 87.
    Roberts, I.M., Tamada, T., and Harrison, B.D., 1980, Relationship of potato leafroll virus to luteoviruses: Evidence from electron microscope serological tests, J. Gen. Virol. 47:209–213.Google Scholar
  90. 88.
    Rose, D.G., 1983, Some properties of an unusual isolate of potato virus S, Potato Res. 26:49–62.Google Scholar
  91. 8.
    Russo, M., Martelli, G.P., and Savino, V., 1982a, Immunosorbent electron microscopy for detecting sap-transmissible viruses of grapevine, in: A.J. McGinnis (ed.), Proceedings ofthe 7th Meeting ofthe International Council for the Study of Viruses and Virus-like diseases ofthe Grapevine. Agriculture Canada, Research Branch, pp. 251–257.Google Scholar
  92. 90.
    Russo, M., Savino, V., and Vovlas, e., 1982b, Virus diseases of vegetable crops in Apulia XXVII. Broad bean stain, Phytopathol. Z. 104:115–123.Google Scholar
  93. 91.
    Sequeira, J.e., and Harrison, B.D., 1982, Serological studies on cassava latent virus, Ann. Appl. Bioi. 101:33–42.Google Scholar
  94. 92.
    Shalla, T.A., and Amici, A., 1964, The distribution of viral antigen in cells infected with tobacco mosaic virus as revealed by electron microscopy, Virology 31:78–91.Google Scholar
  95. 93.
    Shalla, T.A., and Shepard, J.F., 1972, The structure and antigenic analysis of amorphous inclusion bodies induced by potato virus X, Virology 49:654–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 94.
    Shepard, J.F., Gaard, G., and Purcifull, D.E., 1974, A study of tobacco etch virus-induced inclusions using indirect immunoferritin procedures, Phytopathology 64:418–425.Google Scholar
  97. 95.
    Shukla, D.D., and Gough, K.H., 1979, The use of protein A from Staphylococcus aureus in immune electron microscopy for detecting plant virus particles, J. Gen. Virol. 45:533–536.Google Scholar
  98. 96.
    Shukla, D.D., and Gough, K.H., 1983, Characteristics of the protein A-immunosorbent electron microscopic technique (PA-ISEM) for detecting plant virus particles, Acta Phytopathol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 18:173–185. Google Scholar
  99. 97.
    Shukla, D.D., and Gough, K.H., 1984, Serological relationships among four Australian strains of sugarcane mosaic virus as determined by immune electron microscopy, Plant Dis. 68:204–206.Google Scholar
  100. 98.
    Singer, S.J., and Schick, A.F., 1961, The properties of specific stains for electron microscopy prepared by the conjugation of antibody molecules with ferritin, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 9:519–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 99.
    Sinha, R.C., and Benhamou, N., 1983, Detection of mycoplasmalike organism antigens from aster yellows-diseased plants by two serological procedures, Phytopathology 73:1199–1202.Google Scholar
  102. 100.
    Sinha, R.e., and Chiykowski, L.N., 1984, Purification and serological detection of mycoplasmalike organisms from plants affected by peach eastern X-disease, Can. J. Plant Pathol. 6:200–205.Google Scholar
  103. 101.
    Slot, J.W., and Geuze, H.J., 1981, Sizing of protein A colloidal gold probes for immunoelectron microscopy, J. Cell Bioi. 90:533–536.Google Scholar
  104. 102.
    Stobbs, L.W., 1984, Effect of grid rotation in a magnetic field on virus adsorption in immunoelectron microscopy, Phytopathology 74:1132–1134.Google Scholar
  105. 103.
    Stollar, B.D., 1973, Nucleic acid antigens, in: M. Sola (ed.), The Antigens, Vol. 1, Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–85.Google Scholar
  106. 104.
    Tamada, T., Harrison, B.D., and Roberts, LM., 1984, Variation among British isolates of potato leafroll virus, Ann. Appl. BioI. 104:107–116.Google Scholar
  107. 105.
    Thomas, B.J., 1980, The detection by serological methods of viruses infecting the rose, Ann. Appl. BioI. 94:91–101.Google Scholar
  108. 106.
    Tomenius, K., Clapham, D., and Oxelfelt, P., 1983, Localization by immunogold cytochemistry of viral antigen in sections of plant cells infected with red clover mottle virus, J. Gen. Virol. 64:2669–2678.Google Scholar
  109. 107.
    Torrance, L., and Jones, R.A.C., 1981, Recent developments in serological methods suited for use in routine testing for plant viruses, Plant Pathol. 30:1–24.Google Scholar
  110. 108.
    Torrance, L., and Jones, R.A.C., 1982, Increased sensitivity of detection of plant viruses obtained by using a fluorogenic substrate in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Ann. Appl. BioI. 101:501–509.Google Scholar
  111. 109.
    Usugi, T., and Saito, Y., 1981, Purification and some properties of oat mosaic virus, Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Japan 47:581–585.Google Scholar
  112. 110.
    Van Balen, E., 1982, The effect of pretreatments of carbon-coated formvar films on the trapping of potato leafroll virus particles using immunosorbent electron microscopy, Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 88:33–37.Google Scholar
  113. 111.
    Van Regenmortel, M.H.V., 1975, Antigenic relationships between strains of tobacco mosaic virus, Virology 64:415–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 112.
    Van Regenmortel, M.H.V., 1982a, Serology and Immunochemistry ofPlant Viruses, Academic Press, New York, pp. 124–132.Google Scholar
  115. 113.
    Van Regenmortel, M.H.V., 1982b, Serology and Immunochemistry ofPlant Viruses, Academic Press, New York, pp. 147–169.Google Scholar
  116. 114.
    Van Regenmortel, M.H.V., Nicolaieff, A., and Burckard, J., 1980, Detection of a wide spectrum of virus strains by indirect ELISA and serological trapping electron microscopy (STREM), Acta Hortic. 110:107–115.Google Scholar
  117. 115.
    Vetten, H.J., 1981, Indexing of nepoviruses on Chenopodium quinoa after elimination of virus inhibitors in grape leaf extracts, J. Plant Dis. Protect. 57:99–110.Google Scholar
  118. 116.
    Waterhouse, P.M., and Murant, A.F., 1981, Purification of carrot red leaf virus and evidence from four serological tests for its relationship to luteoviruses, Ann. Appl. BioI. 97:191–204.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yogesh C. Paliwal
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemistry and Biology Research InstituteAgriculture CanadaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations