Inverse Methods for Ocean Circulation

  • G. Veronis
Part of the Topics in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences book series (TATM)


Velocities near the surface of the ocean have been measured directly and can often be estimated indirectly by ship drift or dead reckoning. The large number of determinations of the flow of surface waters has resulted in charts (e.g., Dietrich, 1963) that provide a reasonably good picture of the average surface circulation. The same cannot be said of the flow of deep water, where direct measurements in the same location yield velocities that reverse direction in a month or two and have amplitudes that may exceed the expected mean by a factor of 100 or more. Since the prospect of determining the mean velocity directly is therefore not feasible, oceanographers have had to turn to indirect methods based on property distributions that are apparently steady or that change only slowly with time.


Reference Level Ocean Circulation Inverse Method Reference Surface Dead Reckoning 
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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

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  • G. Veronis

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