There are two major fjord regions of the world, a belt north of 43°N and a belt south of 42°S (Fig. 1.1). These fjord coasts are commensurate with areas that were previously or are presently glaciated; glacial erosion appears to have played a significant role in the mode of fjord formation. The environmental setting of fjords is closely interrelated with respect to geomorphology, climatological conditions, water circulation, and sediment sources. Some fjords are more typical than others, showing characteristic features that fit the definition of fjords (Fig. 2.1; see Chapter 1). Other high-latitude estuaries are more fjord-like, exhibiting only a few of the features associated with fjords, while the overall natural setting would suggest that they be classified as fjords.
KeywordsSulfide Phytoplankton Sewage Stratification Compaction
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