Part of the
book series (MN)
Mediators of Signal Transduction
This article summarizes some of our knowledge concerning intracellular protein phosphorylation pathways in nerve cells. It also summarizes, very briefly, recent direct experimental evidence involving intracellular injection of protein kinases, protein kinase inhibitors, and substrates, indicating that protein phosphorylation mediates the actions of a variety of neurotransmitters on their target cells. Finally, it summarizes in somewhat greater detail the results of studies of three different types of substrate proteins that appear to regulate different types of biological responses in nerve cells: synapsin I, a substrate protein present in virtually all nerve terminals, which appears to regulate neurotransmitter release from those nerve terminals; the acetylcholine receptor, the phosphorylation of which regulates its rate of desensitization in the presence of acetylcholine; and DARPP-32, the phosphorylation of which converts it into a very potent phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor that may be involved in the regulation by the neuromodulator dopamine of the effects of the neurotransmitter glutamate. The identification and characterization of additional neuronal phospho-proteins can be expected to lead to the clarification of numerous additional molecular mechanisms by which signal transduction is carried out in nerve cells.
Index EntriesNeuronal phosphoproteins phosphoproteins, neuronal signal transduction, neuronal phosphoproteins as mediators of mediators, of signal transduction by neuronal phosphoproteins neurotransmitter actions synapsin I nicotinic acetylcholine receptor DARPP-32, regulation of cAMP regulation of DARPP-32 dopamine regulation, of DARPP-32
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