Advertisement

Cosmic Rays

  • Robert L. Fleischer

Abstract

The space above the atmosphere of the earth — between the planets and the stars — is thought by many people only to be empty space. Yet it contains and is traversed by an immense diversity of radiation, both electromagnetic and nuclear. Occasional dust particles are also present. The radiation carries information about distant bodies in the cosmos, and its complexity delivers elaborate clues to the nature of astrophysical processes that have emitted vast quantities of energy. Examples of these sources are the surface of our sun, supernova explosions, pulsars, and red giant stars.

Keywords

Magnetic Monopole Track Detector Cellulose Nitrate Iron Isotope Lunar Sample 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Refernces

FURTHER READING ON COSMIC RAYS AND PARTICLE IDENTIFICATION

  1. APT81 “Track-Recording Solids,” S.P. Ahlen, P.B. Price, and G. Tarle, Physics Today 34,32–39 (1981) Sept.Google Scholar
  2. FPW75 Chapters 3 and 5 of Nuclear Tracks in Solids, R L. Fleischer, P.B. Price, and R.M. Walker, Univ. of California Press, Berkeley, 1975, pages 119 to 155 and 232 to 306.Google Scholar
  3. PF71 “Identification of Energetic Heavy Nuclei with Solid Dielectric Track Detectors: Applications to Astrophysical and Planetary Studies,” P.B. Price and R.L. Fleischer, Annr. Rev. Nucl. Sci. 21, 295–334 (1971).Google Scholar

REFERENCES

  1. G.E. Blanford, M.W. Friedlander, J. Klarmann, R.M. Walker, J.P. Wefel, W.C. Wells, R.L. Fleischer, G.E. Nichols, and P. B. Price (1969), “Observation of Trans–Iron Nuclei in the Primary Cosmic Radiation,” Phys. Rev. Letters 23, 338–342.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. E.M. Burbidge, G. R. Burbidge, W. A. Fowler, and F. Hoyle (1957), “Synthesis of the Elements in Stars,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 547–650.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. B. Cabrera (1982), “First Results from a Superconductive Detector for Moving Magnetic Monopoles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1378–1381.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. G.M. Comstock, R.L. Fleischer, W.R. Giard, H.R. Hart, Jr., G.E. Nichols, and P.B. Price (1971), “Cosmic Ray Tracks in Plastics: Apollo Helmet Dosimetry Experiments.” Science 172, 154–157.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. G. Crozaz and R.M. Walker (1971), “Solar Particle Tracks in Glass from the Surveyor 3 Spacecraft,” Science 171, 1237–1239.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. P.A.M. Dirac (1931), “Quantized Singularities in the Electromagnetic Field,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A133, 60–72.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. R.L. Fleischer (1985), “Magnetic Monopoles,” in R.A. Carrigan, ed., Fermilab Industrial Affiliates Roundatble: Applications of Particle Physics: Out on the Limb of Speculation. Batavia, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, May, pp 65–77.Google Scholar
  8. R.L. Fleischer and H.R. Hart (1974), “Particle Track Record of Apollo 16 Rocks from Plum Crater,” J. Geophys. Res. 79, 766–768.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. R.L. Fleischer, P.B. Price, and R. M. Walker (1965), “Solid State Track Detectors: Applications to Nuclear Science and Geophysics,” Ann. Rev. Nuc. Sci. 15, 1–28.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. R.L. Fleischer, P.B. Price, R. M. Walker, and M. Maurette (1967a), “Origins of Fossil Charged Particle Tracks in Meteorites,” J. Geophys. Res. 72, 333–353.Google Scholar
  11. R.L. Fleischer, P. B. Price, R. M. Walker, M. Maurette, and G. Morgan (1967b), “Tracks of Heavy Primary Cosmic Rays in Meteorites,” J. Geophys. Res. 72, 355–366.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. R.L. Fleischer, P. B. Price, R. M. Walker, R. C. Filz, K. Fukui, M. W. Fried– lander, E. Holeman, R. S. Rajan, and A. S. Tamhane (1967c), “Observations of Cosmic Rays in Plastics,” Science 155, 187–189.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. R. L. Fleischer, E. L. Haines, H. R. Hart, Jr., R. T. Woods, and G. M. Comstock (1970a), “The Particle Track Record of the Sea of Tranquility,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 3, Suppl. I, 2103–2120.Google Scholar
  14. R.L. Fleischer, E. Lifshin, P.B. Price, R.T. Woods, R. W. Carter, and E. L. Fireman (1970b), “Schenectady Meteorite,” Icarus 12, 402–406.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. R.L. Fleischer, H.R. Hart, and W.R. Giard (1970c), “Particle Track Identification: Application of a New Technique to Apollo Helmets,” Science 170, 1189–1191.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. R.L. Fleischer, H.R. Hart, I.S. Jacobs, P.B. Price, W.M. Schwarz, and R.T. Woods (1970d), “Magnetic Monopoles: Where Are They and Where Aren’t They?” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 958–965.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. R.L. Fleischer, H. R. Hart, and G. M. Comstock (1971), “Very Heavy Solar Cosmic Rays: Energy Spectrum and Implications for Lunar Erosion,” Science 171, 1240–1242.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. R.L. Fleischer, H. R. Hart, G. M. Comstock, M. Carter, A. Renshaw, and A. Hardy (1973), “Apollo 14 and 16 Heavy Particle Dosimetry Experiments,” Science 181, 436–438.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. P.H. Fowler, R. A. Adams, V. G. Cowen, and J. M. Kidd (1967), “The Charge Spectrum of Very Heavy Cosmic Ray Nuclei,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A301, 39–45.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. P.H. Fowler, V. M. Clapham, V. G. Cowen, J. M. Kidd, and R. T. Moses (1970), “The Charge Spectrum of Very Heavy Cosmic Ray Nuclei,” Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A318, 1–43.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. P.S. Freier, E.J. Lofgren, E.P. Oppenheimer, H.L. Bradt, and B. Peters (1948), “ Evidence for Heavy Nuclei in the Primary Cosmic Radiation, ”Phys. Rev. 74, 213–217.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. M. Maurette, P. Pellas, and R.M. Walker (1964), “Cosmic Ray Induced Particle Tracks in a Meteorite,” Nature 204, 821–823.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. D. O’Sullivan, P.B. Price, E.K. Shirk, P.H. Fowler, J.M. Kidd, E. J. Kobetich, and R. Thorne (1971), “High Resolution Measurements of Slowing Cosmic Rays from Fe to U,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 463–466.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. P.B. Price (1976), “Status of the Evidence for a Magnetic Monopole”, in A. Perlmutter, ed., New Pathways in High-Engery Physics, NY, Plenum Publishing Corporation, Vol. 1, pp 167–214.Google Scholar
  25. P.B. Price and R.L. Fleischer (1970), “Particle Identification by Dielectric Track Detectors,” Radiat. Effects 2, 291–298.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. P.B. Price, R.L. Fleischer, D.D. Peterson, C. O’Ceallaigh, D. O’Sullivan, and A. Thompson (1967), “Identification of Isotopes of Energetic Particles with Dielectric Track Detectors,” Phys. Rev. 164, 1618–1620.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. P.B. Price, P.H. Fowler, J.M. Kidd, E.J. Kobetich, R.L. Fleischer, and G. E. Nichols (1971a), “Study of the Charge Spectrum of Extremely Heavy Cosmic Rays Using Combined Plastic Detectors and Nuclear Emulsions,” Phys. Rev. D3, 815–823.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. P.B. Price, I.D. Hutcheon, R. Cowsik, and D.J. Barber (1971b), “Enhanced Emission of Fe Nuclei in Solar Flares,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26, 916–919.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. P.B. Price, E.K. Shirk, W.Z. Osborne, and L.S. Pinsky (1975), “Evidence for Detection of a Moving Magnetic Monopole.” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 487–490.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. P.B. Price, E.K. Shirk, W.Z. Osborne, and L. S. Pinsky (1978), “Further Measurements and Reassessment of the Magnetic-Monopole Candidate,” Phys. Rev. D18, 1382–1421.ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Proceedings of the Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference (1970), A. A. Levin- son, ed., Supplement I, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Vol 3, “Physical Properties.”Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert L. Fleischer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUnion CollegeSchenectadyUSA

Personalised recommendations