Advertisement

Reading and Memory for Prose in Adulthood: Issues of Expertise and Compensation

  • Roger A. Dixon
  • Lars Bäckman
Part of the Recent Research in Psychology book series (PSYCHOLOGY)

Abstract

Do the many processes or aspects of cognition “age” alike or differently? How similar is cognitive aging within or across age cohorts? Do reading skills decline inevitably with advancing age? Is there less evidence for age-related decrements in memory for such ecologically relevant materials as prose passages than for lists of words or nonsense syllables? What are the conditions under which adults might develop or maintain highly skilled levels of reading and memory for prose performance? Given that reading and memory skills are complex and multi determined, is it possible to suffer age-related decline in one or more components and still maintain successful performance levels into old age?

Keywords

Lexical Decision Work Memory Capacity Reading Fluency Cognitive Aging Verbal Skill 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, C., Dorosz, M., Holmes, C., Bass, S., Gossiaux, D., & Labouvie-Vief, G. (1985, November). Qualitative age differences in story recall. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, C., & Labouvie-Vief, G. (1986, November). Modes of knowing and language processing. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Chicago.Google Scholar
  3. Adams, C., Labouvie-Vief, G., Hobart, C.J., & Dorosz, M. (1990). Adult age group differences in story recall style. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 45, 17–27.Google Scholar
  4. Bäckman, L. (1985). Compensation and recoding: A framework for aging and memory research. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 26, 193–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bäckman, L. (1989). Varieties of memory compensation of older adults in episodic remembering. In L.W. Poon, D.C. Rubin, & B.A. Wilson (Eds.), Everyday cognition in adulthood and late life. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bäckman, L., & Dixon, R.A. (1986, September). Compensation and adaptive cognitive functioning in adulthood. In M.M. Baltes & D.L. Featherman (Chairs), Optimal living for aging. Symposium conducted at the European Conference on Developmental Psychology, Rome.Google Scholar
  7. Bäckman, L., & Dixon, R.A. (in press). Psychological compensation: A theoretical framework. Psychological Bulletin.Google Scholar
  8. Baddeley, A., Logie, R., Nimmo-Smith, I., & Brereton, N. (1985). Components of fluent reading. Journal of Memory and Language, 24, 119–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baltes, P.B. (1987). Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 23, 611–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baltes, P.B., Dittmann-Kohli, F., & Dixon, R.A. (1984). New perspectives on the development of intelligence in adulthood: Toward a dual-process conception and a model of selective optimization with compensation. In P.B. Baltes & O.G. Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 6). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Baltes, P.B., & Smith, J. (1990). Toward a psychology of wisdom and its ontogenesis. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Baltes, P.B., & Willis, S.L. (1979). The critical importance of appropriate methodology in the study of aging: The sample case of psychometric intelligence. In F. Hoffmeister & C. Miller (Eds.), Brain function in old age. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  13. Berg, C. A., & Sternberg, R.J. (1985). A triarchic theory of intellectual development during adulthood. Developmental Review, 5, 334–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boswell, D.A. (1979). Metaphoric processing in the mature years. Human Development, 22, 373–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carver, R.P. (1985). How good are some of the world’s best readers? Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 389–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Charness, N. (1987). Component processes in bridge bidding and novel problem-solving tasks. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 41, 223–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Charness, N. (1989). Age and expertise: Responding to Talland’s challenge. In L.W. Poon, D.C. Rubin, & B. A. Wilson (Eds.), Everyday cognition in adulthwod and late life. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Craik, F.I.M. (1977). Age differences in human memory. In J.E. Birren & K.W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  19. Denney, N.W. (1982). Aging and cognitive changes. In B.B. Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of developmental psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  20. Denney, N.W. (1989). Problem-solving in adulthood. In L.W. Poon, D.C. Rubin, & B.A. Wilson (Eds.), Everyday cognition in adulthood and late life. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dixon, R.A., & Bäckman, L. (1988). Text recall and aging: Toward research on expertise and compensation. In M. Gruneberg, P. Morris, & R. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory. Chichester: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Dixon, R.A., & Bäckman, L. (1991). Prose processing and recall in adulthood: A test of a general model. Unpublished manuscript, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.Google Scholar
  23. Dixon, R.A., & Baltes, P.B. (1986). Toward life-span research on the functions and pragmatics of intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg & R.K. Wagner (Eds.), Practical intelligence: Nature and origins of competence in the everyday world. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Dixon, R.A., Hultsch, D.F., Hertzog, C., & Cornish, S.E. (1986, May). More on verbal ability and text structure effects on text recall in adulthood. Paper presented at the First Cognitive Aging Conference, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  25. Dixon, R.A., Hultsch, D.F., Simon, E.W., & von Eye, A. (1984). Verbal ability and text structure effects on adult age differences in text recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 569–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dixon, R.A., Simon, E.W., Nowak, C.A., & Hultsch, D.F. (1982). Text recall in adulthood as a function of level of information, input modality, and delay interval. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 358–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ericsson, K.A. (1985). Memory skill. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 39, 188–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gould, O.N., Trevithick, L., & Dixon, R.A. (1991). Adult age differences in elaborations produced during prose recall. Psychology and Aging, 6, 93–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hartley, A.A. (1989). The cognitive ecology of problem solving. In L.W. Poon, D.C. Rubin, & B.A. Wilson (Eds.), Everyday cognition in adulthood and late life. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hartley, J.T. (1986). Reader and text variables as determinants of discourse memory in adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 1, 150–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoyer, W.J. (1985). Aging and the development of expert cognition. In T.M. Schlecter & M.P. Toglia (Eds.), New directions in cognitive science. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  32. Hultsch, D.F., & Dixon, R.A. (1983). The role of pre-experimental knowledge in text processing in adulthood. Experimental Aging Research, 9, 17–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hultsch, D.F., & Dixon, R.A. (1984). Memory for text materials in adulthood. In P.B. Baltes & O.G. Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology (Vol. 6). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hultsch, D.F., & Dixon, R.A. (1990). Learning and memory in aging. In J.E. Birren & K.W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (3rd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. Hultsch, D.F., Hertzog, C., & Dixon, R.A. (1984). Text recall in adulthood: The role of intellectual abilities. Developmental Psychology, 20, 1193–1209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hunt, E., & Love, T. (1982). The second mnemonist. In U. Neisser (Ed.), Memory observed: Remembering in natural contexts. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  37. Intons-Peterson, M.J., & Smyth, M.M. (1987). The anatomy of repertory memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 450–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jennings, J.R., Nebes, R.D., & Yovetich, NA. (1990). Aging increases the energetic demands of episodic memory: A cardiovascular analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kintsch, W. (1974). The representation of meaning in memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  40. Labouvie-Vief, G. (1982). Dynamic development and mature autonomy: A theoretical prologue. Human Development, 25, 161–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Labouvie-Vief, G. (1985). Intelligence and cognition. In J.E. Birren & K.W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  42. Labouvie-Vief, G. (1990). Wisdom as integrated thought: Historical and developmental perspectives. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Labouvie-Vief, G. (in press). Modes of knowledge and the organization of development. In M.L. Commons, C. Armon, F.A. Richards, & J. Sinnott (Eds.), Beyond formal operations: 2. The development of adolescent and adult thinking and perception. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  44. Labouvie-Vief, G., & Schell, D.A. (1982). Learning and memory in later life. In B.B. Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of developmental psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  45. Labouvie-Vief, G., Schell, D.A., & Weaverdyck, S.E. (1980, November). Recall deficit in the aged: A fable recalled. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  46. Light, L.L., & Anderson, P.A. (1983). Memory for scripts in young and older adults. Memory & Cognition, 11, 435–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Meyer, B.J.F., & Rice, G.E. (1983). Learning and memory from text across the adult life span. In J. Fine & R.O. Freedle (Eds.), Developmental studies in discourse. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  48. Petros, T.V., Tabor, L., Cooney, T., & Chabor, R.J. (1983). Adult age differences in sensitivity to semantic structure of prose. Developmental Psychology, 19, 907–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rohwer, W.D., Jr., (1976). An introduction to research on individual and developmental differences in learning. In W.K. Estes (Ed.), Handbook of learning and cognitive processes (Vol. 3). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  50. Rubin, D.C. (1977). Very long-term memory for prose and verse. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 16, 611–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Salthouse, T.A. (1982). Adult cognition: An experimental psychology of human aging. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  52. Salthouse, T.A. (1984). Effects of age and skill in typing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 345–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Salthouse, T.A. (1987a). Age, experience, and compensation. In C. Schooler & K.W. Schaie (Eds.), Cognitive functioning and social structure over the life course. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  54. Salthouse, T.A. (1987b). The role of experience in cognitive aging. In K.W. Schaie (Ed.), Annual review of gerontology and geriatrics (Vol. 7). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Salthouse, T.A. (1990). Cognitive competence and expertise in aging. In J.E. Birren & K.W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (3rd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Stanovich, K.E. (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 32–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stanovich, K.E. (1984). The interactive-compensatory model of reading: A confluence of developmental, experimental, and educational psychology. Remedial and Special Education, 5, 11–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stanovich, K.E., & West, R.F. (1983). On priming by sentence context. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 112, 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Statten, G.M. (1982). The mnemonic feat of the “Shass Pollak.” In U. Neisser (Ed.), Memory observed: Remembering in natural contexts. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  60. Wilding, J., & Valentine, E. (1985). One man’s memory for prose, faces and names. British Journal of Psychology, 76, 215–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yates, F.A. (1966). The art of memory. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  62. Zelinski, E.M., & Gilewski, M.J. (1988). Memory for prose and aging: A meta-analysis. In M.L. Howe & C.J. Brainerd (Eds.), Cognitive development in adulthood: Progress in cognitive development research. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  63. Zelinski, E.M., Light, L.L., & Gilewski, M.J. (1984). Adult age differences in memory for prose: The question of sensitivity to passage structure. Developmental Psychology, 20, 1181–1192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger A. Dixon
  • Lars Bäckman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations