Current Concepts in the Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate

  • Joseph A. SmithJr.
Part of the Hormones in Health and Disease book series (HHD)


Carcinoma of the prostate is the most common cancer in men in the United States and the second most common cause of cancer death. In addition, both these figures are increasing at an alarming rate. The incidence of prostate cancer goes up with advancing age but the disease is being recognized increasingly in younger men.


Prostate Specific Antigen Radical Prostatectomy Localize Prostate Cancer Digital Rectal Examination Watchful Waiting 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bagshaw MA, Cox RS, Rambach JE (1990): Radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Urol Clin N Am 17: 787–802Google Scholar
  2. Carter BS, Bova GS, Beaty TH, Steinberg GD, Childs B, Isaacs WB, Walsh PC (1993): Hereditary prostate cancer: epidemiologic and clinical features. J Urol 150 (3): 797–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Ratliff TL, Dodds KM, Coplen DE, Yuan JJ, Petros JA, Andriole GL (1991): Measurement of prostate specific antigen in serum as a screening test for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 324: 1156–1161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Catalona WJ, Richie JP, Ahmann FR, Hudson MA, Scardino PT, Flanigan RC, deKernion JB, Ratliff TL, Kavoussi LR, Dalkin BL, Waters WB, MacFarlane MT, Southwick PC (1994): Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical rial of 6630 men. J Urol 151 (5): 1283–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chodak GW, Keller P, Schoenberg HW (1989): Assessment of screening for prostate cancer using the digital rectal examination. J Urol 141 (5): 1136–1138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chodak GW, Thisted RA, Gerber GS, Johansson JE, Adolfsson J, Jones GW, Chisholm DD, Moskovitz B, Livne PM, Warner J (1994): Results of conservative management of clinically localized prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 330: 242–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cooner WH, Mosley BR, Rutherford CL, Beard JH, Pond HS, Terry WJ, Igel TC, Kidd DD (1990): Prostate cancer detection in a clinical urological practice by ultrasonography, digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen. J Urol 143(6):1146–1152; discussion 1152–1154Google Scholar
  8. Crawford ED, Eisenbergen MA, McLeod DG, Spaulding JT, Benson R, Dorr FA (1989): A controlled trial of leuprolide with and without flutamide in prostatic carcinoma. N Engl J Med 321: 419–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eisenberger MA, Bezerdigan L, Kalash S (1987): A critical assessment of the role of chemotherapy for endocrine resistant prostatic carcinoma. Urol Clin N Am 14: 695–706Google Scholar
  10. Epstein JI, Walsh PC, Carmichael M, Brendler CB (1994): Pathologic and clinical findings to predict tumor extent of nonpalpable (stage Tic) prostate cancer. JAMA 271 (5): 368–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garmick MB, Glode LM, Smith JA Jr (1985): Leuprolide versus diethylstilbestrol for metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 311: 1281–1286Google Scholar
  12. Hanks GE, Asbell S, Krall JM, Perez CA, Doggett S, Robin P, Sause W, Pilepich MV (1991): Outcome for lymph node dissection negative Tib, T2 prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy in RTOG 77-06. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Physiol 21: 1009–1103Google Scholar
  13. Hernandez AD, Smith JA Jr (1990): Transrectal ultrasonography for the early detection and staging of prostate cancer. Urol Clin N Am 17: 745–757Google Scholar
  14. Huggins C, Hodges CV (1941): Studies on prostatic cancer. I. The effect of castration, estrogen and androgen injections or serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Res 1: 293–295Google Scholar
  15. Johansson JE, Adami HO, Andersson SO, Bergstrom R, Holmberg L, Krusemo UB (1992): High 10 year survival rate in patients with early untreated prostate cancer. JAMA 267: 2191–2196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koch MO, Smith J A, Hodge EM, Brandell RA (1994): Prospective development of a cost efficient program for radical retropubic prostatectomy. Urology 44 (3): 311–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Labrie F (1991): Endocrine therapy of prostate cancer. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am 20: 845–872Google Scholar
  18. Laing AH, Ackery DM, Bayly RJ, Buchanan RB, Lewington VJ, McEwan AJ, Macleod PM, Zivanovic MA (1991): Strontium-89 chloride for pain palliation in prostatic skeletal malignancy. Br J Radiol 64: 816–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. LaRocca RV, Cooper MR, Uhrich M, Danesi R, Walther MM, Linehan WM, Myers CE (1991): Use of suramin in treatment of prostatic carcinoma refractory to conventional hormonal manipulation. Urol Clin N Am 18: 123–129Google Scholar
  20. Lee F, Littrup PJ, Torp-Pedersen ST, Mettlin C, McHugh TA, Gray JM, Kumasaka GH, McLeary RD (1988): Prostate cancer: comparison of transrectal US and digital rectal examination for screening. Radiology 168 (2): 389–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Lewington VJ, McEwan AJ, Ackery DM, Bayly RJ, Keeling DH, Macleod PM, Porter AT, Zivanovic MA (1991): A prospective, randomized double-blind crossover study to examine the efficacy of strontium-89 in pain palliation in patients with advanced prostate cancer metastatic to bone. Eur J Cancer 27: 954–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McWhorter WP, Hernandez AD, Meikle AW, Terreros DA, Smith JA Jr, Skolnick MH, Cannon-Albright LA, Eyre HJ (1992): A screening study of prostate cancer in high risk families. J Urol 148: 826–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mettlin C, Lee F, Drago J, Murphy GP (1991): The American Cancer Society National Prostate Cancer Detection Project. Findings on the detection of early prostate cancer in 2425 men. Cancer 67 (12): 2949–2958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Middleton RG, Larsen RH (1990): Selection of patients with stage B prostate cancer for radical prostatectomy. Urol Clin N Am 17: 779–786Google Scholar
  25. Oesterling JE (1991): Prostate specific antigen: A critical assessment of the most useful tumor marker for prostate cancer. J Urol 145: 907–923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Oesterling JE, Cooner WH, Jacobsen SJ, Guess HA, Lieber MM (1993): Influence of patient age on the serum PSA concentration. An important clinical observation. Urol Clin N Am 20 (4): 671–680Google Scholar
  27. Rosen MA, Goldstone L, Lapin S, Wheeler T, Scardino PT (1992): Frequency and location of extracapsular extension and positive surgical margins in radical prostatectomy specimens. J Urol 148: 331–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Scaletscky R, Koch MO, Eckstein CW, Bicknell SL, Gray GF Jr, Smith JA Jr (1994): Tumor volume and stage in carcinoma of the prostate detected by elevation in prostate specific antigen. J Urol 152: 129–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Schellhammer PF, Whitmore RB, Kuban DA, El-Mahdi AM, Ladaga LA (1989): Morbidity and mortality of local failure after definitive therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol 141: 567 - 571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Seidman AD, Scher HI, Petrylak D, Dershaw DD, Curley T (1992): Estramustine and vinblastine: use of prostate specific antigen as a clinical trial endpoint in hormone-refractory prostatic cancer. J Urol 147: 931–934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Shinohara K, Wheeler TM, Scardino PT (1989): The appearance of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathological examinations. J Urol 142 (l): 76–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Smith JA Jr (1984): Androgen suppression by a gonadotropin releasing hormone analog in patients with metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 131: 1110–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Smith JA Jr (1987): Endocrine treatment. In: Clinical Management of Prostate Cancer. Smith JA Jr, Middleton RG (eds). Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, pp 134–153Google Scholar
  34. Smith JA Jr (1994): A prospective comparison of treatments for symptomatic hot flushes following endocrine therapy for carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 152: 132 - 134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Tannock I, Gospodarowicz M, Meakin W, Panzarella T, Stewart L, Rider W (1989): Treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer with low-dose prednisone: evaluation of pain and quality of life as pragmatic indices of response. J Clin Oncol 7: 590–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Terris MK, McNeal JE, Stamey TA (1992): Detection of clinically significant prostate cancer by transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic biopsies. J Urol 148 (3): 829–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Walsh PE, Epstein JI, Lowe FC (1987): Potency following radical prostatectomy with wide unilateral excision of the neurovascular bundle. J Urol 138: 823–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Wheeler J A, Zagars GK, Ayala AG (1993): Dedifferentiation of locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy. Evidence for tumorprogression. Cancer 71: 3783–3787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Whitmore WF Jr, Warner JA, Thompson IM Jr (1991): Expectant management of localized prostate cancer. Cancer 67: 1091–1096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yagoda A, Smith JA Jr, Soloway MS, Tomera K, Seidmon EJ, Olsson C, Wajsman Z (1991): Phase II study of estramustine phosphate in advanced hormone refractory prostatic cancer with increasing prostate specific antigen levels. J Urol 145: 384AGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph A. SmithJr.

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations