Principles, Applications and Protocols of Microwave Technology for Morphological Analysis

  • Anthony S-Y. Leong
  • F. Joel Leong

Abstract

Since the introduction of microwave irradiation for morphologic diagnosis and research just over 20 years ago, the applications of microwaves have expanded considerably beyond their initial use as a safe, clean and rapid method of tissue fixation. Microwaves can now be employed for the fixation of large specimens, including brain, to accelerate the action of cross-linking fixatives, as well as to greatly reduce the various stages of tissue processing so that a paraffin-embedded block can be produced in about 30 min. Almost every histochemical stain can be greatly accelerated by microwaves, and immunohistochemical staining procedures can be completed in 20 min by employing microwaves. Cellular antigens are distinctly better preserved in tissues fixed by microwaves than by conventional cross-linking fixatives, and the cytomorphology of cryostat sections irradiated in Wolman’s solutions is vastly improved. Microwaves can similarly be employed in transmission and electron microscopy both for fixation and staining of ultrathin sections, and they have the potential to greatly accelerate the polymerization of resins. They also have applications in newer molecular techniques; they not only increase the speed of the procedures but also improve sensitivity. This wide range of applications makes microwave technology invaluable in the pathology laboratory.

Keywords

Estrogen Dopamine Oligomer Dehydration Enzymatic Degradation 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony S-Y. Leong
    • 1
  • F. Joel Leong
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Tissue PathologyInstitute of Medical & Veterinary ScienceAdelaideAustralia

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