The Effect of Animal Age on Tumor Induction

  • Yvonne Leutzinger
  • John P. RichieJr.

Abstract

One of the major factors that affects the induction of cancer by chemical compounds, and which has not yet been thoroughly investigated, is the age of the host. As a number of significant metabolic changes occur throughout the life span of an organism, host age is likely to have an impact on the manifested potency of cancer-causing agents. Since humans can be exposed to carcinogens at any point throughout their lifetime, it is important to understand the risks associated with exposure at all stages of the life span.

Keywords

Leukemia Adenocarcinoma Hydrocarbon Adenoma Smoke 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anisimov, V. N.: “Carcinogenesis and Aging”. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1987.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Newell, G. R.: Epidemiology of Cancer. In “Principles and Practice of Oncology” (T. DeVita, Jr., S. Hellman, and S. A. Rosenberg, eds.). Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1985, p. 169.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yancic, R.: Frames of Reference: Old Age as the Context for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer. In “Perspectives on Prevention and Treatment of Cancer in the Elderly” (R. Yancic, ed.). Raven Press, New York, 1983, p.5.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Napalkov, N. P., Rice, J. M., Tomatis, L., and Yamasaki, H. (eds.): “Perinatal and Multigeneration Carcinogenesis”, IARC Sci. Publ. 96. IARC, Lyon, France, 1989.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Likhachev, A., Anisimov, V., and Montesano, R. (eds.): “Age-Related Factors in Carcinogenesis”, IARC Sci. Publ. 58. IARC, Lyon, France, 1985.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kirkwood, T. B. C.: Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects of Longevity. In “Handbook of the Biology of Aging” (C. E. Finch and E. L. Schneider, eds.). Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, 1985, p. 27.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brody, J. A., and Brock, D. B.: Epidemiologic and Statistical Characteristics of the United States Elderly Population. In “Handbook of the Biology of Aging” (C. E. Finch and E. L. Schneider, eds.). Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, 1985, p. 3.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Comfort, A.: “The Biology of Senescence”, 3rd ed. Elsevier, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rowe, J. W., Andres, R., Tobin, J. D., Noris, A. H., and Shock, N. W.: J. Gerontol. 31, 155 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shock, N. W., Grevlich, R. C., Costa, P. T., Jr., Andres, R., Lakatta, E. G., Arenberg, P., and Tobin, J. D.: “Normal Human Aging: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging”, NIH Publ. No. 84-2450. Washington, D. C., 1984.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lang, C. A., and Richie, J. P., Jr.: Exp. Gerontol. 21, 235 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Finch, C. E., and Schneider, E. L., (eds.): “Handbook of the Biology of Aging”. Van Nostrand- Reinhold, New York, 1985.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shock, N. W.: Longitudinal Studies of Aging in Humans. In “Handbook of the Biology of Aging” (C. E. Finch and E. L. Schneider, eds.). Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, 1985, p. 721.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Masoro, E. J. (ed.): “CRC Handbook on the Physiology of Aging”. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1981.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Warner, H. R., Butler, R. N., Sprott, R. L., and Schneider, E. L. (eds.): “Modern Biological Theories of Aging”. Raven Press, New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lang, C. A.: Research Strategies for the Study of Nutrition and Aging. In “Nutritional Aspects of Aging” (L. H. Chen, ed.), Vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1986, p. 3.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tannenbaum, A.: Cancer Res. 2, 460 (1942).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sass, B., Rabstein, L. S., Madison, R., Nims, R. M., Peters, R. L., and Kelloff, G. J.: J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 54, 1449 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Richie, J. P., Jr., and Williams, G. M.: Aging and Cancer. In “The Potential for Nutritional Modulation of Aging Processes” (D. K. Ingram, G. T. Baker III, and N. W. Shock, eds.). Food & Nutrition Press, Trumbull, Connecticut, 1991, p. 51.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Harman, D.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 7124 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Harman, D.: Radiat. Res. 16, 753 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Anisimov, V. N.: Adv. Cancer Res. 40, 265, (1983).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Doll, R.: Age. In “Host Environment Interactions in the Etiology of Cancer in Man”, IARC Sci. Publ. No. 7 (R. Doll and I. Vodopija, eds.). IARC, Lyon, France, 1973.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Peto, R., Roe, F. J. C., Lee, P. N., Levy, L., and Clack, J.: Br. J. Cancer 32, 411 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Peto, R., Parish, S. E., and Gray, R. G.: There Is No Such Thing as Aging, and Cancer Is Not Related to It. In “Age-Related Factors in Carcinogenesis”, IARC Sci. Publ. 58 (A. Likhachev, V. Anisimov, and R. Montesano, eds.). IARC, Lyon, France, 1985, p. 43.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Anisimov, V. N.: Vopr. Onkol. 22, 98 (1976).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stukonis, M. K.: Cancer Cumulative Risk, IARC Int Tech. Rept. No. 79/004. IARC, Lyon, France, 1979.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dix, D., Cohen, P., and Flannery, J.: J. Theor. Biol. 83, 163 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Staats, J.: Cancer Res. 40, 2083 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gibson, D. C., Adelman, R. C., and Finch, C.: “Development of the Rodent as a Model System of Aging, Book II”, NIH Publ. No. 79-161. 1982.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zurcher, C., van Zwieten, M. J., Solleveld, H. A., and Hollander, C. F.: Aging Research. In “The Mouse in Biomedical Research, Vol. IV: Experimental Biology and Oncology” (H. L. Foster, J. D. Small, and J. G. Fox, eds.). Academic Press, New York, 1982, p. 11.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Russell, E. S.: Lifespan and Aging Patterns. In “Biology of the Laboratory Mouse” (E. L. Green, ed.). Dover, New York, 1968, p. 511.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zimmerman, J. A., and Carter, T. H.: J. Gerontol. Biol. Sci. 44, 19 (1989).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Peto, R., Pike, M. C., Day, N. E., Gray, R. S., Lee, P. N., Parish, S., Peto, J., Richards, S., and Wahrendorf, J.: “Guidelines for Simple Sensitive Significance Tests for Carcinogenic Effects in Long-Term Animal Experiments”, Annex in Suppl. No.2, IARC Monographs. IARC, Lyon, France, 1980, p. 311.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Solleveld, H. A., and McConnell, E. E.: Toxicol. Pathol. 13, 128 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Arcos, J. C., and Argus, M. F.: “Chemical Induction of Cancer”, Vol. IIA. Academic Press, New York, 1974, p. 86.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Williams, G. M., and Weisburger, J. H.: Chemical Carcinogenesis. In “Toxicology, the Basic Science of Poisons” (M. O. Amdur, J. Doull, and C. D. Klaassen, eds.), 4th ed. Pergamon, New York, 1991, p. 127.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Van Duuren, B. L., Sivak, A., Segal, A., Seidman, I., and Katz, C.: Cancer Res. 33, 2166 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Van Duuren, B. L., Sivak, A., Katz, C., Seidman, I., and Melchionne, S. M.: Cancer Res. 35, 502 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Van Duuren, B. L., Smith, A. C., and Melchionne, S. M.: Cancer Res. 38, 865 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stenback, F., Peto, R., and Shubik, P.: Br. J. Cancer 44, 1 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stenback, F., Peto, R., and Shubik, P.: Br. J. Cancer 44, 15 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Loehrke, H., Schweizer, J., Dederer, E., Hesse, B., Rosenkranz, G., and Goertler, K.: Carcinogenesis 4, 771 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Franks, L. M. and Carbonell, A. W.: J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52, 565 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ebbesen, P.: Nature 241, 280 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ebbesen, P.: Science 183, 217 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ebbesen, P.: J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 58, 1057 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Summerhayes, I. C., and Franks L. M.: J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 62, 1017 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shirai, T., Nakamura, A., Fukushima, S., Takahashi, S., Ogawa, K., and Ito, N.: Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 80, 312 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Arcos, J. C., Woo, Y. T., and Argus, M. F.: “Chemical Induction of Cancer”, Vol. IIIA. Academic Press, New York, 1982, p. 148.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lijinski, W., and Kovatch, R. M.: Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 77, 1222 (1986).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Clapp, N. K., Perkins, E. H., Klima, W. C., and Cacheiro, L. H.: J. Gerontol. 36, 158 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mochizuki, Y., and Furukawa, K.: Tumor Res. 16, 19 (1981).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Peto, R., Gray, R., Brantom, P., and Grasso, P.: IARC Sci. Publ. 57, 627 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zimmerman, J. A., Trombetta, L. D., Carter, T. H., and Wetsbroth, S. H.: Gerontology 28, 114 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zelinsky-Papez, K., Carter, T. H., and Zimmerman, J. A.: In Vitro Cell. Develop. Biol. 23, 118 (1987).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Anisimov, V. N.: Vopr. Onkol. 33, 65 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Anisimov, V. N.: Exp. Pathol. 19, 81 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Woo, Y. T., Lai, D. Y., Arcos, J. C., and Argus, M. F.: “Chemical Induction of Cancer”, Vol. IIIB. Academic Press, New York, 1985, p. 53.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Drew, R. T., Boorman, G. A., Haseman, J. K., McConnell, E. E., Busey, W. M., and Moore, J. A.: Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 68, 120 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Groth, D. H., Coate, W. B., Ulland, B. M., and Hornung, R. W.: Env. Health Perspect. 41, 53 (1981).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Doll, R.: Cancer Res. 38, 3573 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kahn, H. A.: NCI Monogr. 19, 1 (1966).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shimizu, Y., Schull, W. J., and Kato, H.: JAMA 264, 601 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Doll, R., Morgan, L. G., and Speizer, F. E.: Br. J. Cancer 24, 624 (1970).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hoover, R., and Cole, P.: N. Engl. J. Med. 288, 1040 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    National Cancer Institute: “Perinatal Carcinogenesis”, NCI Monograph No. 51, NIH Publ. No. 79-1633, Bethesda, Maryland, 1979.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Vesselinovitch, S. D.: Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 331, 53 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Anderson, L. M., Jones, A. B., and Rice, J. M.: Br. J. Cancer 64, 1025 (1991).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Schmucker, D. L., and Wang, R. K.: Mech. Aging Dev. 15, 189 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sun, J. Q., and Strobel, H. W.: Exp. Gerontol. 21, 523 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Baird, M. B., and Birnbaum, L. S.: Cancer Res. 39, 4752 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Robertson, G. C., and Birnbaum, L. S.: Chem. Biol. Interact. 38, 243 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    McMahon, T. F., and Birnbaum, L. S.: Drug Metab. Dispos. 19, 1052 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Coles, B., and Ketterer, B.: Critical Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 25, 47 (1990).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Abraham, E. C., Taylor, J. F., and Lang, C. A.: Biochem. J. 174, 819 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hazelton, G. A., and Lang, C. A.: Biochem. J. 188, 25 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hazelton, G. A., and Lang, C. A.: Biochem. J. 210, 289 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hazelton, G. A., and Lang, C. A.: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 176, 249 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nanyshkin, S., Miller, L., Lindeman, R., and Lang, C. A.: Federation Proc. 40, 3179 (1981).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Schneider, D., Naryshkin, S., and Lang, C. A.: Federation Proc. 41, 7671 (1982).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Chen, T. S., Richie, J. P., Jr., and Lang, C. A.: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 190, 399 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Richie, J. P., Jr., and Lang, C. A.: Drug Metab. Dispos. 13, 14 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chen, T. S., Richie, J. P., Jr., and Lang, C. A.: Drug Metab. Dispos. 18, 882 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Richie, J. P., Jr., Lang, C. A., and Chen, T. S.: Biochem. Pharmacol. 44, 129 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chen, T. S., Richie, J. P., Jr., and Lang, C. A.: Pharmacologist 30, A78 (1988).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jenkinson, S. G., Duncan, C. A., Bryan, C. L., and Lawrence, R.A.: Am. J. Med. Sci. 302, 347 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Birnbaum, L. S., and Baird, M. B.: Chem. Biol. Interact. 26, 245 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Spearman, M. E., and Leibman, K. C.: Biochem. Pharmacol. 33, 1309 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kitahara, A., Ebina, T., Ishikawa, T., Soma, Y., Sato, K., and Kanai, S.: Changes in Activities and Molecular Forms of Rat Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes During Aging. In “Liver and Drugs” (K. Kitani, ed.). Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1982, p. 135.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Stohs, S. J., Al-Turk, W. A., Angle, L. R., and Heinicke, R.J.: Gen. Pharmacol. 13, 519 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fujita, S., Kitagawa, H., Ishizawa, H., Suzuki, T., and Kitani, K.: Biochem. Pharmacol. 34, 3891 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Staiano-Coico, L., Darzynkiewicz, Z., Hefton, J. M., Dutkowski, R., Darlington, G. J., and Weksler, M. E.: Science 219, 1335 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Staiano-Coico, L., Darzynkiewicz, Z., Melamed, M. R., and Weksler, M. E.: Cytometry 3, 79 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dutkowski, R. T., Lesh, R., Staiano-Coico, L., Thaler, H., Darlington, G. J., and Weksler, M. E.: Mutat. Res. 149, 505 (1983).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hart, R. W., and Setlow, R. D.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71, 2169 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Warner, H. R., and Price, A. R.: J. Gerontol. 44, 45 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Plesko, M. M., and Richardson, A.: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 118, 730 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Maslansky, C. J., and Williams, G. M.: Mech. Aging Dev. 29, 191 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cameron, I., and Thrasher, J. D.: Interdiscip. Top. Gerontol. 10, 108 (1976).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Burnet, F. M.: Transplant Rev. 7, 3 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Makinodan, T., and Hirayama, R.: IARC Sci. Publ. 58, 55 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kaesberg, P. R., and Ershler, N. B.: J. Gerontol. 44, 63 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Boyd, E.: Am. J. Dis. Child. 43, 1162 (1932).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lewis, V. M., Twomey, J. J., Bealmear, P., Goldstein, G., and Good, R. A.: J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 48, 145 (1978).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schwab, R., Staiano-Coico, L., and Weksler, M. E.: Diagn. Immunol. 1, 195 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Baldwin, R. W.: Adv. Cancer Res. 18, 1 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kripke, M. C., and Borsos, T.: J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52, 1393 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Currie, G.: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 458, 135 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rygaard, J., and Poulsen, C. O.: Transplant Rev. 28, 43 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Boston 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yvonne Leutzinger
  • John P. RichieJr.

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations